# mdBook-specific features

## Hiding code lines

There is a feature in mdBook that lets you hide code lines by prepending them with a # like you would with Rustdoc.

# fn main() {
let x = 5;
let y = 6;

println!("{}", x + y);
# }


Will render as

fn main() {
let x = 5;
let y = 7;

println!("{}", x + y);
}


## Including files

With the following syntax, you can include files into your book:

{{#include file.rs}}


The path to the file has to be relative from the current source file.

mdBook will interpret included files as Markdown. Since the include command is usually used for inserting code snippets and examples, you will often wrap the command with  to display the file contents without interpreting them.


{{#include file.rs}}



## Including portions of a file

Often you only need a specific part of the file, e.g. relevant lines for an example. We support four different modes of partial includes:

{{#include file.rs:2}}
{{#include file.rs::10}}
{{#include file.rs:2:}}
{{#include file.rs:2:10}}


The first command only includes the second line from file file.rs. The second command includes all lines up to line 10, i.e. the lines from 11 till the end of the file are omitted. The third command includes all lines from line 2, i.e. the first line is omitted. The last command includes the excerpt of file.rs consisting of lines 2 to 10.

To avoid breaking your book when modifying included files, you can also include a specific section using anchors instead of line numbers. An anchor is a pair of matching lines. The line beginning an anchor must match the regex ANCHOR:\s*[\w_-]+ and similarly the ending line must match the regex ANCHOR_END:\s*[\w_-]+. This allows you to put anchors in any kind of commented line.

Consider the following file to include:

/* ANCHOR: all */

// ANCHOR: component
hello: f32,
}
// ANCHOR_END: component

////////// ANCHOR: system
impl System for MySystem { ... }
////////// ANCHOR_END: system

/* ANCHOR_END: all */


Then in the book, all you have to do is:

Here is a component:
rust,no_run,noplayground
{{#include file.rs:component}}


Here is a system:
rust,no_run,noplayground
{{#include file.rs:system}}


This is the full file.
rust,no_run,noplayground
{{#include file.rs:all}}



Lines containing anchor patterns inside the included anchor are ignored.

## Including a file but initially hiding all except specified lines

The rustdoc_include helper is for including code from external Rust files that contain complete examples, but only initially showing particular lines specified with line numbers or anchors in the same way as with include.

The lines not in the line number range or between the anchors will still be included, but they will be prefaced with #. This way, a reader can expand the snippet to see the complete example, and Rustdoc will use the complete example when you run mdbook test.

For example, consider a file named file.rs that contains this Rust program:

fn main() {
assert_eq!(x, 3);
}

fn add_one(num: i32) -> i32 {
num + 1
}


We can include a snippet that initially shows only line 2 by using this syntax:

To call the add_one function, we pass it an i32 and bind the returned value to x:

rust
{{#rustdoc_include file.rs:2}}



This would have the same effect as if we had manually inserted the code and hidden all but line 2 using #:

To call the add_one function, we pass it an i32 and bind the returned value to x:

rust
# fn main() {
#     assert_eq!(x, 3);
# }
#
# fn add_one(num: i32) -> i32 {
#     num + 1
# }



That is, it looks like this (click the "expand" icon to see the rest of the file):

fn main() {
assert_eq!(x, 3);
}

fn add_one(num: i32) -> i32 {
num + 1
}


## Inserting runnable Rust files

With the following syntax, you can insert runnable Rust files into your book:

{{#playground file.rs}}


The path to the Rust file has to be relative from the current source file.

When play is clicked, the code snippet will be sent to the Rust Playground to be compiled and run. The result is sent back and displayed directly underneath the code.

Here is what a rendered code snippet looks like:

fn main() {
println!("Hello World!");

// You can even hide lines! :D
println!("I am hidden! Expand the code snippet to see me");
}


## Controlling page <title>

A chapter can set a <title> that is different from its entry in the table of contents (sidebar) by including a {{#title ...}} near the top of the page.

{{#title My Title}}
`