Summary

Add a marker trait FusedIterator to std::iter and implement it on Fuse<I> and applicable iterators and adapters. By implementing FusedIterator, an iterator promises to behave as if Iterator::fuse() had been called on it (i.e. return None forever after returning None once). Then, specialize Fuse<I> to be a no-op if I implements FusedIterator.

Motivation

Iterators are allowed to return whatever they want after returning None once. However, assuming that an iterator continues to return None can make implementing some algorithms/adapters easier. Therefore, Fuse and Iterator::fuse exist. Unfortunately, the Fuse iterator adapter introduces a noticeable overhead. Furthermore, many iterators (most if not all iterators in std) already act as if they were fused (this is considered to be the "polite" behavior). Therefore, it would be nice to be able to pay the Fuse overhead only when necessary.

Microbenchmarks:

test fuse          ... bench:         200 ns/iter (+/- 13)
test fuse_fuse     ... bench:         250 ns/iter (+/- 10)
test myfuse        ... bench:          48 ns/iter (+/- 4)
test myfuse_myfuse ... bench:          48 ns/iter (+/- 3)
test range         ... bench:          48 ns/iter (+/- 2)

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![feature(test, specialization)]
#fn main() {
extern crate test;

use std::ops::Range;

#[derive(Clone, Debug)]
#[must_use = "iterator adaptors are lazy and do nothing unless consumed"]
pub struct Fuse<I> {
    iter: I,
    done: bool
}

pub trait FusedIterator: Iterator {}

trait IterExt: Iterator + Sized {
    fn myfuse(self) -> Fuse<Self> {
        Fuse {
            iter: self,
            done: false,
        }
    }
}

impl<I> FusedIterator for Fuse<I> where Fuse<I>: Iterator {}
impl<T> FusedIterator for Range<T> where Range<T>: Iterator {}

impl<T: Iterator> IterExt for T {}

impl<I> Iterator for Fuse<I> where I: Iterator {
    type Item = <I as Iterator>::Item;

    #[inline]
    default fn next(&mut self) -> Option<<I as Iterator>::Item> {
        if self.done {
            None
        } else {
            let next = self.iter.next();
            self.done = next.is_none();
            next
        }
    }
}

impl<I> Iterator for Fuse<I> where I: FusedIterator {
    #[inline]
    fn next(&mut self) -> Option<<I as Iterator>::Item> {
        self.iter.next()
    }
}

impl<I> ExactSizeIterator for Fuse<I> where I: ExactSizeIterator {}

#[bench]
fn myfuse(b: &mut test::Bencher) {
    b.iter(|| {
        for i in (0..100).myfuse() {
            test::black_box(i);
        }
    })
}

#[bench]
fn myfuse_myfuse(b: &mut test::Bencher) {
    b.iter(|| {
        for i in (0..100).myfuse().myfuse() {
            test::black_box(i);
        }
    });
}


#[bench]
fn fuse(b: &mut test::Bencher) {
    b.iter(|| {
        for i in (0..100).fuse() {
            test::black_box(i);
        }
    })
}

#[bench]
fn fuse_fuse(b: &mut test::Bencher) {
    b.iter(|| {
        for i in (0..100).fuse().fuse() {
            test::black_box(i);
        }
    });
}

#[bench]
fn range(b: &mut test::Bencher) {
    b.iter(|| {
        for i in (0..100) {
            test::black_box(i);
        }
    })
}
#}

Detailed Design

trait FusedIterator: Iterator {}

impl<I: Iterator> FusedIterator for Fuse<I> {}

impl<A> FusedIterator for Range<A> {}
// ...and for most std/core iterators...


// Existing implementation of Fuse repeated for convenience
pub struct Fuse<I> {
    iterator: I,
    done: bool,
}

impl<I> Iterator for Fuse<I> where I: Iterator {
    type Item = I::Item;

    #[inline]
    fn next(&mut self) -> Self::Item {
        if self.done {
            None
        } else {
            let next = self.iterator.next();
            self.done = next.is_none();
            next
        }
    }
}

// Then, specialize Fuse...
impl<I> Iterator for Fuse<I> where I: FusedIterator {
    type Item = I::Item;

    #[inline]
    fn next(&mut self) -> Self::Item {
        // Ignore the done flag and pass through.
        // Note: this means that the done flag should *never* be exposed to the
        // user.
        self.iterator.next()
    }
}

Drawbacks

  1. Yet another special iterator trait.
  2. There is a useless done flag on no-op Fuse adapters.
  3. Fuse isn't used very often anyways. However, I would argue that it should be used more often and people are just playing fast and loose. I'm hoping that making Fuse free when unneeded will encourage people to use it when they should.
  4. This trait locks implementors into following the FusedIterator spec; removing the FusedIterator implementation would be a breaking change. This precludes future optimizations that take advantage of the fact that the behavior of an Iterator is undefined after it returns None the first time.

Alternatives

Do Nothing

Just pay the overhead on the rare occasions when fused is actually used.

IntoFused

Use an associated type (and set it to Self for iterators that already provide the fused guarantee) and an IntoFused trait:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![feature(specialization)]
#fn main() {
use std::iter::Fuse;

trait FusedIterator: Iterator {}

trait IntoFused: Iterator + Sized {
    type Fused: Iterator<Item = Self::Item>;
    fn into_fused(self) -> Self::Fused;
}

impl<T> IntoFused for T where T: Iterator {
    default type Fused = Fuse<Self>;
    default fn into_fused(self) -> Self::Fused {
        // Currently complains about a mismatched type but I think that's a
        // specialization bug.
        self.fuse()
    }
}

impl<T> IntoFused for T where T: FusedIterator {
    type Fused = Self;

    fn into_fused(self) -> Self::Fused {
        self
    }
}
#}

For now, this doesn't actually compile because rust believes that the associated type Fused could be specialized independent of the into_fuse function.

While this method gets rid of memory overhead of a no-op Fuse wrapper, it adds complexity, needs to be implemented as a separate trait (because adding associated types is a breaking change), and can't be used to optimize the iterators returned from Iterator::fuse (users would have to call IntoFused::into_fused).

Associated Type

If we add the ability to condition associated types on Self: Sized, I believe we can add them without it being a breaking change (associated types only need to be fully specified on DSTs). If so (after fixing the bug in specialization noted above), we could do the following:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
trait Iterator {
    type Item;
    type Fuse: Iterator<Item=Self::Item> where Self: Sized = Fuse<Self>;
    fn fuse(self) -> Self::Fuse where Self: Sized {
        Fuse {
            done: false,
            iter: self,
        }
    }
    // ...
}
#}

However, changing an iterator to take advantage of this would be a breaking change.

Unresolved questions

Should this trait be unsafe? I can't think of any way generic unsafe code could end up relying on the guarantees of FusedIterator.

~~Also, it's possible to implement the specialized Fuse struct without a useless done bool. Unfortunately, it's very messy. IMO, this is not worth it for now and can always be fixed in the future as it doesn't change the FusedIterator trait.~~ Resolved: It's not possible to remove the done bool without making Fuse invariant.