Stability attributes

This section is about the stability attributes and schemes that allow stable APIs to use unstable APIs internally in the rustc standard library.

For instructions on stabilizing a language feature see Stabilizing Features.


The #[unstable(feature = "foo", issue = "1234", reason = "lorem ipsum")] attribute explicitly marks an item as unstable. This infects all sub-items, where the attribute doesn't have to be reapplied. So if you apply this to a module, all items in the module will be unstable.

You can make specific sub-items stable by using the #[stable] attribute on them. The stability scheme works similarly to how pub works. You can have public functions of nonpublic modules and you can have stable functions in unstable modules or vice versa.

Note, however, that due to a rustc bug, stable items inside unstable modules are available to stable code in that location! So, for example, stable code can import core::intrinsics::transmute even though intrinsics is an unstable module. Thus, this kind of nesting should be avoided when possible.


The #[stable(feature = "foo", "since = "1.420.69")] attribute explicitly marks an item as stabilized. To do this, follow the instructions in Stabilizing Features.

Note that stable functions may use unstable things in their body.


Macros, compiler desugarings and const fns expose their bodies to the call site. To work around not being able to use unstable things in the standard library's macros, there's the #[allow_internal_unstable(feature1, feature2)] attribute that whitelists the given features for usage in stable macros or const fns.

Note that const fns are even more special in this regard. You can't just whitelist any feature, the features need an implementation in For example the const_fn_union feature gate allows accessing fields of unions inside stable const fns. The rules for when it's ok to use such a feature gate are that behavior matches the runtime behavior of the same code (see also this blog post). This means that you may not create a const fn that e.g. transmutes a memory address to an integer, because the addresses of things are nondeterministic and often unknown at compile-time.

Always ping @oli-obk, @RalfJung, and @Centril if you are adding more allow_internal_unstable attributes to any const fn