Running Asynchronous Code

An HTTP server should be able to serve multiple clients concurrently; that is, it should not wait for previous requests to complete before handling the current request. The book solves this problem by creating a thread pool where each connection is handled on its own thread. Here, instead of improving throughput by adding threads, we'll achieve the same effect using asynchronous code.

Let's modify handle_connection to return a future by declaring it an async fn:

async fn handle_connection(mut stream: TcpStream) {
    //<-- snip -->

Adding async to the function declaration changes its return type from the unit type () to a type that implements Future<Output=()>.

If we try to compile this, the compiler warns us that it will not work:

$ cargo check
    Checking async-rust v0.1.0 (file:///projects/async-rust)
warning: unused implementer of `std::future::Future` that must be used
  --> src/
12 |         handle_connection(stream);
   |         ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
   = note: `#[warn(unused_must_use)]` on by default
   = note: futures do nothing unless you `.await` or poll them

Because we haven't awaited or polled the result of handle_connection, it'll never run. If you run the server and visit in a browser, you'll see that the connection is refused; our server is not handling requests.

We can't await or poll futures within synchronous code by itself. We'll need an asynchronous runtime to handle scheduling and running futures to completion. Please consult the section on choosing a runtime for more information on asynchronous runtimes, executors, and reactors. Any of the runtimes listed will work for this project, but for these examples, we've chosen to use the async-std crate.

Adding an Async Runtime

The following example will demonstrate refactoring synchronous code to use an async runtime; here, async-std. The #[async_std::main] attribute from async-std allows us to write an asynchronous main function. To use it, enable the attributes feature of async-std in Cargo.toml:

version = "1.6"
features = ["attributes"]

As a first step, we'll switch to an asynchronous main function, and await the future returned by the async version of handle_connection. Then, we'll test how the server responds. Here's what that would look like:

async fn main() {
    let listener = TcpListener::bind("").unwrap();
    for stream in listener.incoming() {
        let stream = stream.unwrap();
        // Warning: This is not concurrent!

Now, let's test to see if our server can handle connections concurrently. Simply making handle_connection asynchronous doesn't mean that the server can handle multiple connections at the same time, and we'll soon see why.

To illustrate this, let's simulate a slow request. When a client makes a request to, our server will sleep for 5 seconds:

use std::time::Duration;
use async_std::task;

async fn handle_connection(mut stream: TcpStream) {
    let mut buffer = [0; 1024]; buffer).unwrap();

    let get = b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\n";
    let sleep = b"GET /sleep HTTP/1.1\r\n";

    let (status_line, filename) = if buffer.starts_with(get) {
        ("HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n", "hello.html")
    } else if buffer.starts_with(sleep) {
        ("HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n\r\n", "hello.html")
    } else {
        ("HTTP/1.1 404 NOT FOUND\r\n\r\n", "404.html")
    let contents = fs::read_to_string(filename).unwrap();

    let response = format!("{status_line}{contents}");

This is very similar to the simulation of a slow request from the Book, but with one important difference: we're using the non-blocking function async_std::task::sleep instead of the blocking function std::thread::sleep. It's important to remember that even if a piece of code is run within an async fn and awaited, it may still block. To test whether our server handles connections concurrently, we'll need to ensure that handle_connection is non-blocking.

If you run the server, you'll see that a request to will block any other incoming requests for 5 seconds! This is because there are no other concurrent tasks that can make progress while we are awaiting the result of handle_connection. In the next section, we'll see how to use async code to handle connections concurrently.