Associated type position impl trait

Owner(s)Oliver Scherer
Teamstypes, lang


Stable support for impl Trait in the values of associated types (aka "associated type position impl trait" or ATPIT)


Rust has been on a long-term quest to support impl Trait in more and more locations ("impl Trait everywhere"). The next step in that journey is supporting impl Trait in the values of associated types (aka "associated type position impl trait" or ATPIT), which allows impls to provide more complex types as the value of an associated type, particularly anonymous types like closures and futures. It also allows impls to hide the precise type they are using for an associated type, leaving room for future changes. This is the latest step towards the overall vision of support impl Trait notation in various parts of the Rust language.

The status quo

Impls today must provide a precise and explicit value for each associated type. For some associated types, this can be tedious, but for others it is impossible, as the proper type involves a closure or other aspect which cannot be named. Once a type is specified, impls are also unable to change that type without potentially breaking clients that may have hardcoded it.

Rust's answer to these sorts of problems is impl Trait notation, which is used in a number of places within Rust to indicate "some type that implements Trait":

  • Argument position impl Trait ("APIT"), in inherent/item/trait functions, in which impl Trait desugars to an anonymous method type parameter (sometimes called "universal" impl Trait);
  • Return type position in inherent/item functions ("RPIT") and in trait ("RPITIT") functions, in which impl Trait desugars to a fresh opaque type whose value is inferred by the compiler.

ATPIT follows the second pattern, creating a new opaque type.

The next six months

The plan for 2024 is to stabilize Associated Type Position Impl Trait (ATPIT). The design has been finalized from the lang team perspective for some time, but the types team is still working out final details. In particular, the types team is trying to ensure that whatever programs are accepted will also be accepted by the next generation trait solver, which handles opaque types in a new and simplified way.

The "shiny future" we are working towards

This goal is part of the "impl Trait everywhere" effort, which aims to support impl Trait in any position where it makes sense. With the completion of this goal we will support impl Trait in

  • the type of a function argument ("APIT") in inherent/item/trait functions;
  • return types in functions, both inherent/item functions ("RPIT") and trait functions ("RPITIT");
  • the value of an associated type in an impl (ATPIT).

Planned extensions for the future include:

  • allowing impl Trait in type aliases ("TAIT"), like type I = impl Iterator<Item = u32>;
  • allowing impl Trait in let bindings ("LIT"), like let x: impl Future = foo();
  • dyn safety for traits that make use of RTPIT and async functions.

Other possible future extensions are:

  • allowing impl Trait in where-clauses ("WCIT"), like where T: Foo<impl Bar>;
  • allowing impl Trait in struct fields, like struct Foo { x: impl Display };

See also: the explainer here for a "user's guide" style introduction, though it's not been recently updated and may be wrong in the details (especially around TAIT).

Design axioms


Ownership and team asks

Owner: oli-obk owns this goal.

SubgoalOwner(s) or team(s)Notes
ImplementationOliver Scherer
FCP decisionsTeam types
Stabilization decisionTeam types lang

Frequently asked questions

None yet.