The rules about the places mod foo; can be used are tightened to only permit its use in a crate root and in files, to ensure a more sane correspondence between module structure and file system hierarchy. Most notably, this prevents a common newbie error where a module is loaded multiple times, leading to surprising incompatibility between them. This proposal does not take away one’s ability to shoot oneself in the foot should one really desire to; it just removes almost all of the rope, leaving only mixed metaphors.


It is a common newbie mistake to write things like this:

mod foo;
pub mod bar;

mod baz;

pub fn foo(_baz: baz::Baz) { }

mod baz;
use foo::foo;

pub fn bar(baz: baz::Baz) {

pub struct Baz;

This fails to compile because foo::foo() wants a foo::baz::Baz, while bar::bar() is giving it a bar::baz::Baz.

Such a situation, importing one file multiple times, is exceedingly rarely what the user actually wanted to do, but the present design allows it to occur without warning the user. The alterations contained herein ensure that there is no situation where such double loading can occur without deliberate intent via #[path = "….rs"].


None known.

Detailed design

When a mod foo; statement is used, the compiler attempts to find a suitable file. At present, it just blindly seeks for or foo/ (relative to the file under parsing).

The new behaviour will only permit mod foo; if at least one of the following conditions hold:

  • The file under parsing is the crate root, or

  • The file under parsing is a, or

  • #[path] is specified, e.g. #[path = ""] mod foo;.

In layman’s terms, the file under parsing must “own” the directory, so to speak.


The rationale is covered in the summary. This is the simplest repair to the current lack of structure; all alternatives would be more complex and invasive.

One non-invasive alternative is a lint which would detect double loads. This is less desirable than the solution discussed in this RFC as it doesn’t fix the underlying problem which can, fortunately, be fairly easily fixed.

Unresolved questions