This RFC proposes several new generic conversion traits. The motivation is to remove the need for ad hoc conversion traits (like FromStr, AsSlice, ToSocketAddr, FromError) whose sole role is for generics bounds. Aside from cutting down on trait proliferation, centralizing these traits also helps the ecosystem avoid incompatible ad hoc conversion traits defined downstream from the types they convert to or from. It also future-proofs against eventual language features for ergonomic conversion-based overloading.


The idea of generic conversion traits has come up from time to time, and now that multidispatch is available they can be made to work reasonably well. They are worth considering due to the problems they solve (given below), and considering now because they would obsolete several ad hoc conversion traits (and several more that are in the pipeline) for std.

Problem 1: overloading over conversions

Rust does not currently support arbitrary, implicit conversions – and for some good reasons. However, it is sometimes important ergonomically to allow a single function to be explicitly overloaded based on conversions.

For example, the recently proposed path APIs introduce an AsPath trait to make various path operations ergonomic:

pub trait AsPath {
    fn as_path(&self) -> &Path;

impl Path {

    pub fn join<P: AsPath>(&self, path: &P) -> PathBuf { ... }

The idea in particular is that, given a path, you can join using a string literal directly. That is:

// write this:
let new_path = my_path.join("fixed_subdir_name");

// not this:
let new_path = my_path.join(Path::new("fixed_subdir_name"));

It’s a shame to have to introduce new ad hoc traits every time such an overloading is desired. And because the traits are ad hoc, it’s also not possible to program generically over conversions themselves.

Problem 2: duplicate, incompatible conversion traits

There’s a somewhat more subtle problem compounding the above: if the author of the path API neglects to include traits like AsPath for its core types, but downstream crates want to overload on those conversions, those downstream crates may each introduce their own conversion traits, which will not be compatible with one another.

Having standard, generic conversion traits cuts down on the total number of traits, and also ensures that all Rust libraries have an agreed-upon way to talk about conversions.


When considering the design of generic conversion traits, it’s tempting to try to do away will all ad hoc conversion methods. That is, to replace methods like to_string and to_vec with a single method to::<String> and to::<Vec<u8>>.

Unfortunately, this approach carries several ergonomic downsides:

  • The required ::< _ > syntax is pretty unfriendly. Something like to<String> would be much better, but is unlikely to happen given the current grammar.

  • Designing the traits to allow this usage is surprisingly subtle – it effectively requires two traits per type of generic conversion, with blanket impls mapping one to the other. Having such complexity for all conversions in Rust seems like a non-starter.

  • Discoverability suffers somewhat. Looking through a method list and seeing to_string is easier to comprehend (for newcomers especially) than having to crawl through the impls for a trait on the side – especially given the trait complexity mentioned above.

Nevertheless, this is a serious alternative that will be laid out in more detail below, and merits community discussion.

Detailed design

Basic design

The design is fairly simple, although perhaps not as simple as one might expect: we introduce a total of four traits:

trait AsRef<T: ?Sized> {
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &T;

trait AsMut<T: ?Sized> {
    fn as_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T;

trait Into<T> {
    fn into(self) -> T;

trait From<T> {
    fn from(T) -> Self;

The first three traits mirror our as/into conventions, but add a bit more structure to them: as-style conversions are from references to references and into-style conversions are between arbitrary types (consuming their argument).

A To trait, following our to conventions and converting from references to arbitrary types, is possible but is deferred for now.

The final trait, From, mimics the from constructors. This trait is expected to outright replace most custom from constructors. See below.

Why the reference restrictions?

If all of the conversion traits were between arbitrary types, you would have to use generalized where clauses and explicit lifetimes even for simple cases:

// Possible alternative:
trait As<T> {
    fn convert_as(self) -> T;

// But then you get this:
fn take_as<'a, T>(t: &'a T) where &'a T: As<&'a MyType>;

// Instead of this:
fn take_as<T>(t: &T) where T: As<MyType>;

If you need a conversion that works over any lifetime, you need to use higher-ranked trait bounds:

... where for<'a> &'a T: As<&'a MyType>

This case is particularly important when you cannot name a lifetime in advance, because it will be created on the stack within the function. It might be possible to add sugar so that where &T: As<&MyType> expands to the above automatically, but such an elision might have other problems, and in any case it would preclude writing direct bounds like fn foo<P: AsPath>.

The proposed trait definition essentially bakes in the needed lifetime connection, capturing the most common mode of use for as/to/into conversions. In the future, an HKT-based version of these traits could likely generalize further.

Why have multiple traits at all?

The biggest reason to have multiple traits is to take advantage of the lifetime linking explained above. In addition, however, it is a basic principle of Rust’s libraries that conversions are distinguished by cost and consumption, and having multiple traits makes it possible to (by convention) restrict attention to e.g. “free” as-style conversions by bounding only by AsRef.

Why have both Into and From? There are a few reasons:

  • Coherence issues: the order of the types is significant, so From allows extensibility in some cases that Into does not.

  • To match with existing conventions around conversions and constructors (in particular, replacing many from constructors).

Blanket impls

Given the above trait design, there are a few straightforward blanket impls as one would expect:

// AsMut implies Into
impl<'a, T, U> Into<&'a mut U> for &'a mut T where T: AsMut<U> {
    fn into(self) -> &'a mut U {

// Into implies From
impl<T, U> From<T> for U where T: Into<U> {
    fn from(t: T) -> U { t.into() }

An example

Using all of the above, here are some example impls and their use:

impl AsRef<str> for String {
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &str {
impl AsRef<[u8]> for String {
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &[u8] {

impl Into<Vec<u8>> for String {
    fn into(self) -> Vec<u8> {

fn main() {
    let a = format!("hello");
    let b: &[u8] = a.as_ref();
    let c: &str = a.as_ref();
    let d: Vec<u8> = a.into();

This use of generic conversions within a function body is expected to be rare, however; usually the traits are used for generic functions:

impl Path {
    fn join_path_inner(&self, p: &Path) -> PathBuf { ... }

    pub fn join_path<P: AsRef<Path>>(&self, p: &P) -> PathBuf {

In this very typical pattern, you introduce an “inner” function that takes the converted value, and the public API is a thin wrapper around that. The main reason to do so is to avoid code bloat: given that the generic bound is used only for a conversion that can be done up front, there is no reason to monomorphize the entire function body for each input type.

An aside: codifying the generics pattern in the language

This pattern is so common that we probably want to consider sugar for it, e.g. something like:

impl Path {
    pub fn join_path(&self, p: ~Path) -> PathBuf {

that would desugar into exactly the above (assuming that the ~ sigil was restricted to AsRef conversions). Such a feature is out of scope for this RFC, but it’s a natural and highly ergonomic extension of the traits being proposed here.

Preliminary conventions

Would all conversion traits be replaced by the proposed ones? Probably not, due to the combination of two factors (using the example of To, despite its being deferred for now):

  • You still want blanket impls like ToString for Show, but:
  • This RFC proposes that specific conversion methods like to_string stay in common use.

On the other hand, you’d expect a blanket impl of To<String> for any T: ToString, and one should prefer bounding over To<String> rather than ToString for consistency. Basically, the role of ToString is just to provide the ad hoc method name to_string in a blanket fashion.

So a rough, preliminary convention would be the following:

  • An ad hoc conversion method is one following the normal convention of as_foo, to_foo, into_foo or from_foo. A “generic” conversion method is one going through the generic traits proposed in this RFC. An ad hoc conversion trait is a trait providing an ad hoc conversion method.

  • Use ad hoc conversion methods for “natural”, outgoing conversions that should have easy method names and good discoverability. A conversion is “natural” if you’d call it directly on the type in normal code; “unnatural” conversions usually come from generic programming.

    For example, to_string is a natural conversion for str, while into_string is not; but the latter is sometimes useful in a generic context – and that’s what the generic conversion traits can help with.

  • On the other hand, favor From for all conversion constructors.

  • Introduce ad hoc conversion traits if you need to provide a blanket impl of an ad hoc conversion method, or need special functionality. For example, to_string needs a trait so that every Show type automatically provides it.

  • For any ad hoc conversion method, also provide an impl of the corresponding generic version; for traits, this should be done via a blanket impl.

  • When using generics bounded over a conversion, always prefer to use the generic conversion traits. For example, bound S: To<String> not S: ToString. This encourages consistency, and also allows clients to take advantage of the various blanket generic conversion impls.

  • Use the “inner function” pattern mentioned above to avoid code bloat.

Prelude changes

All of the conversion traits are added to the prelude. There are two reasons for doing so:

  • For AsRef/AsMut/Into, the reasoning is similar to the inclusion of PartialEq and friends: they are expected to appear ubiquitously as bounds.

  • For From, bounds are somewhat less common but the use of the from constructor is expected to be rather widespread.


There are a few drawbacks to the design as proposed:

  • Since it does not replace all conversion traits, there’s the unfortunate case of having both a ToString trait and a To<String> trait bound. The proposed conventions go some distance toward at least keeping APIs consistent, but the redundancy is unfortunate. See Alternatives for a more radical proposal.

  • It may encourage more overloading over coercions, and also more generics code bloat (assuming that the “inner function” pattern isn’t followed). Coercion overloading is not necessarily a bad thing, however, since it is still explicit in the signature rather than wholly implicit. If we do go in this direction, we can consider language extensions that make it ergonomic and avoid code bloat.


The original form of this RFC used the names As.convert_as, AsMut.convert_as_mut, To.convert_to and Into.convert_into (though still From.from). After discussion As was changed to AsRef, removing the keyword collision of a method named as, and the convert_ prefixes were removed.

The main alternative is one that attempts to provide methods that completely replace ad hoc conversion methods. To make this work, a form of double dispatch is used, so that the methods are added to every type but bounded by a separate set of conversion traits.

In this strawman proposal, the name “view shift” is used for as conversions, “conversion” for to conversions, and “transformation” for into conversions. These names are not too important, but needed to distinguish the various generic methods.

The punchline is that, in the end, we can write

let s = format!("hello");
let b = s.shift_view::<[u8]>();

or, put differently, replace as_bytes with shift_view::<[u8]> – for better or worse.

In addition to the rather large jump in complexity, this alternative design also suffers from poor error messages. For example, if you accidentally typed shift_view::<u8> instead, you receive:

error: the trait `ShiftViewFrom<collections::string::String>` is not implemented for the type `u8`

which takes a bit of thought and familiarity with the traits to fully digest. Taken together, the complexity, error messages, and poor ergonomics of things like convert::<u8> rather than as_bytes led the author to discard this alternative design.


// "Views" here are always lightweight, non-lossy, always
// successful view shifts between reference types

// Immutable views

trait ShiftViewFrom<T: ?Sized> {
    fn shift_view_from(&T) -> &Self;

trait ShiftView {
    fn shift_view<T: ?Sized>(&self) -> &T where T: ShiftViewFrom<Self>;

impl<T: ?Sized> ShiftView for T {
    fn shift_view<U: ?Sized + ShiftViewFrom<T>>(&self) -> &U {

// Mutable coercions

trait ShiftViewFromMut<T: ?Sized> {
    fn shift_view_from_mut(&mut T) -> &mut Self;

trait ShiftViewMut {
    fn shift_view_mut<T: ?Sized>(&mut self) -> &mut T where T: ShiftViewFromMut<Self>;

impl<T: ?Sized> ShiftViewMut for T {
    fn shift_view_mut<U: ?Sized + ShiftViewFromMut<T>>(&mut self) -> &mut U {


trait ConvertFrom<T: ?Sized> {
    fn convert_from(&T) -> Self;

trait Convert {
    fn convert<T>(&self) -> T where T: ConvertFrom<Self>;

impl<T: ?Sized> Convert for T {
    fn convert<U>(&self) -> U where U: ConvertFrom<T> {

impl ConvertFrom<str> for Vec<u8> {
    fn convert_from(s: &str) -> Vec<u8> {


trait TransformFrom<T> {
    fn transform_from(T) -> Self;

trait Transform {
    fn transform<T>(self) -> T where T: TransformFrom<Self>;

impl<T> Transform for T {
    fn transform<U>(self) -> U where U: TransformFrom<T> {

impl TransformFrom<String> for Vec<u8> {
    fn transform_from(s: String) -> Vec<u8> {

impl<'a, T, U> TransformFrom<&'a T> for U where U: ConvertFrom<T> {
    fn transform_from(x: &'a T) -> U {

impl<'a, T, U> TransformFrom<&'a mut T> for &'a mut U where U: ShiftViewFromMut<T> {
    fn transform_from(x: &'a mut T) -> &'a mut U {

// Example

impl ShiftViewFrom<String> for str {
    fn shift_view_from(s: &String) -> &str {
impl ShiftViewFrom<String> for [u8] {
    fn shift_view_from(s: &String) -> &[u8] {

fn main() {
    let s = format!("hello");
    let b = s.shift_view::<[u8]>();

Possible further work

We could add a To trait.

trait To<T> {
    fn to(&self) -> T;

As far as blanket impls are concerned, there are a few simple ones:

// AsRef implies To
impl<'a, T: ?Sized, U: ?Sized> To<&'a U> for &'a T where T: AsRef<U> {
    fn to(&self) -> &'a U {

// To implies Into
impl<'a, T, U> Into<U> for &'a T where T: To<U> {
    fn into(self) -> U {