This RFC aims to improve the debugging experience for Rust developers, by enabling Rust developers to package debugger visualizer scripts with their crates.


Most, if not all, Rust developers will at some point have to debug an issue in their crate. Trying to view types as they are laid out in memory is not always the most telling. Furthermore when viewing types from external crates, the information is even harder to interpret.

Many languages and debuggers enable developers to control how a type is displayed in a debugger. These are called “debugger visualizations” or “debugger views”. Debugger views are merely a convenience for some types, such as Vec<T>, but are essential for types such as HashMap<T>, where non-trivial logic is needed in order to correctly display the contents of a type.

For example, given the following instance of HashMap<T>:

fn main() {
    let mut map = HashMap::new();
    map.insert(1, 1);
    map.insert(2, 2);
    map.insert(3, 3);

Viewed under the Windows Debugger (WinDbg), the following is shown:

> Variables
  > map: [Type: std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<i32,i32,std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>]
    > [+0x000] base: [Type: hashbrown::map::HashMap<i32,i32,std::collections::hash::map::RandomState,alloc::alloc::Global>]
      > [+0x000] hash_builder: [Type: std::collections::hash::map::RandomState]
      > [+0x010] table: [Type: hashbrown::raw::RawTable<tuple$<i32,i32>,alloc::alloc::Global>]
        > [+0x000] table: [Type: hashbrown::raw::RawTableInner<alloc::alloc::Global>]
          > [+0x000] bucket_mask: 0x3 [Type: unsigned __int64]
          > [+0x008] ctrl [Type: core::ptr::non_null::NonNull<u8>]
          > [+0x010] growth_left: 0x0 [Type: unsigned __int64]
          > [+0x018] items: 0x3 [Type: unsigned __int64]
          > [+0x000] alloc: [Type: alloc::alloc::Global]
        > [+0x000] marker: [Type: core::marker::PhantomData<tuple$<i32,i32> >]

With Natvis applied, WinDbg results in the following:

> Variables
  > map: { len=0x1 } [Type: std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<i32,i32,std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>]
    > [<Raw View>] [Type: std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<i32,i32,std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>]
    > [len]: 0x1 [Type: unsigned __int64]
    > [capacity]: 0x3
    > [state]: [Type: std::collections::hash::map::RandomState]
    > ["1"]: 1 [Type: int]
    > ["2"]: 2 [Type: int]
    > ["3"]: 3 [Type: int]

Currently, Rust provides visualizations for a handful of types defined in its standard library via Natvis files or pretty printers via python scripts. However, this support is inflexible; updating it requires modifying the Rust toolchain itself, and either using a local build of the toolchain or waiting for a new upstream build of the toolchain. It is not feasible for developers of ordinary crates to update the Rust toolchain, solely to add visualizations for their crates.

The expected outcome of this RFC is to design a way for developers to seamlessly integrate debugger visualizations with their crates. This would mean:

  • Any developer can add debugger visualizations to their crate.
  • If a Rust developer uses a crate that has debugger visualizations in it, then the visualizations of those external crates will “just work” when viewed under a debugger without the need of any manual configuration.
  • Supports existing debugging visualization systems. We do not propose to define a new debugger visualization system; that would be a tremendous undertaking, and would ignore the value of existing systems.
  • No impact on code quality or size.
  • No impact on crates that do not use debugger visualizations.

Guide-level explanation

This RFC explores making debugger visualizations extensible in Rust via Natvis and/or pretty printers. The scenario that we want to enable is:

  • Alice publishes a crate, say, cool_stuff. Alice wrote debugger visualizations for cool_stuff, and included them in the crate.
  • Bob is writing a new Rust application. Deep in the crate dependency graph of Bob’s application, some crate uses cool_stuff. (Bob is not even aware of the existence of debugger visualizations.)
  • While Bob is debugging the application, and examining data structures, he comes across an instance of cool_stuff::CoolType in the debugger. Since the Rust compiler has embedded the Natvis visualizations that Alice wrote into the debuginfo for the binary and the debugger is able to load up and serve the Natvis visualizations, the CoolType value is displayed using its defined debugger view in the debugger. Bob did not need any knowledge, a priori, of how debugger visualizations worked or that Alice had written any debugger visualizations. From Bob’s point of view, debugging CoolType “just worked”.

The same should be applied to pretty printers defined and viewed under LLDB and GDB.

An example: The regex crate

To make this less hypothetical, let’s consider an important community crate, one which would benefit from debugger visualizations, such as the regex crate. Carol is writing an app that uses regex to scan over large input files. The app code looks something like:

// search for "#define FOO nnn"
fn find_c_defines(input: &str) {
    let rx = Regex::new(r#"^#define\s+(\w+)\s+([0-9]+)\s*(//(.*))?"#).unwrap();
    for captures in rx.captures_iter(input) {
        let my_match: Match = captures.get(1).unwrap();

Let’s say that Carol is debugging the app, there’s a problem in do_some_work(). (Perhaps some code path has triggered a panic.) Carol wants to look at the state of the app, inside the find_c_defines function, and she specifically wants to see what the state of captures is. So she selects the find_c_defines call frame and looks at the local variables window.

Unfortunately, the debugger’s view of the captures variable does not give her any useful information at all. It shows only something like:

> Variables
  > captures: {...}
    > text: "...the entire input text..."
    > locs: {...}
      > __0: (4) vec![None, None, None, None]
      > named_groups: (refs:2) size=0, capacity=1
        > [raw]: alloc::sync::Arc<std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<...>>
          > ptr: {pointer:0xNNNNNNNN}
            > pointer: {...}
              > strong: {...}
              > weak: {...}
              > data: size=0, capacity=1
                > base: {...}
                  > hash_builder: {...}

The debugger shows the structure of the data, not its meaning. It is not very useful for Carol. Even the implementor of regex would have a hard time knowing how to decode this. In reality, when trying to understand the state of the captures variable there are several methods defined for a Captures type that paint the actual picture in terms of the information a Rust developer would like to extract from this variable. In order to meaningfully understand what the Captures type is truly trying to tell us, it would be very helpful to visualize this data differently in the debugger.

What we want is something like this:

> Variables:
  > captures: {...}
    > 1: "SOME_CONSTANT"
    > 2: "42"
    > 3: "// some developer comment"

This RFC will describe how to support adding Natvis as well as GDB’s pretty printers.

Natvis is supported by:

  • The Windows Debugger (WinDbg)
  • Visual Studio Debugger

Pretty printers are supported by:

  • GDB
  • LLDB

It should be easy for Rust developers to add debugger visualizations to their crates.

Supporting Natvis

This section describes how Microsoft’s Natvis is supported in Rust.

To use Natvis, developers write XML documents that describe how debugger types should be displayed using the natvis schema. (See: The Natvis files provide patterns, which match type names, and for matching types, a description of how to display those types. This allows for some limited support for generic types.

Rust developers can add one or more Natvis files to their crate. Through the use of a new Rust attribute, #![debugger_visualizer], the compiler will encode the contents of the Natvis file in the crate metadata if the target is an rlib. If the target is a dll or exe, the /NATVIS MSVC linker flag is set for each Natvis file which will embed the Natvis visualizations into the PDB.

To provide Natvis files, developers create a file using the Natvis XML syntax and reference it via the new #![debugger_visualizer] attribute that this RFC proposes.

As an example for how to use this attribute, consider a crate foo with this directory structure:

/Foo.natvis (Note: the Natvis file does not have to match the name of the crate.)
  +-- src

Where contains:

#![debugger_visualizer(natvis_file = "../Foo.natvis")]

/// A rectangle in first quadrant
struct FancyRect {
    pub x: f32,
    pub y: f32,
    pub dx: f32,
    pub dy: f32,

fn main() {
    let mut fancy_rect = FancyRect::new(10.0, 10.0, 5.0, 5.0);
    println!("FancyRect: {:?}", fancy_rect);

and Foo.natvis contains:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<AutoVisualizer xmlns="">
    <Type Name="foo::FancyRect">
      <DisplayString>({x},{y}) + ({dx}, {dy})</DisplayString>
        <Synthetic Name="LowerLeft">
          <DisplayString>({x}, {y})</DisplayString>
        <Synthetic Name="UpperLeft">
          <DisplayString>({x}, {y + dy})</DisplayString>
        <Synthetic Name="UpperRight">
          <DisplayString>({x + dx}, {y + dy})</DisplayString>
        <Synthetic Name="LowerRight">
          <DisplayString>({x + dx}, {y})</DisplayString>

When viewed under WinDbg, the fancy_rect variable would be shown as follows:

> Variables:
  > fancy_rect: (10, 10) + (5, 5)
    > LowerLeft: (10, 10)
    > UpperLeft: (10, 15)
    > UpperRight: (15, 15)
    > LowerRight: (15, 10)

Supporting Pretty Printers

This section describes how GDB’s pretty printers are supported in Rust.

To use a pretty printer, developers write python scripts that describe how a type should be displayed when loaded up in GDB/LLDB. (See: The pretty printers provide patterns, which match type names, and for matching types, describe how to display those types. (For writing a pretty printer, see:

Rust developers can add one or more pretty printers to their crate. This is done in the Rust compiler via python scripts. Through the use of the new Rust attribute this RFC proposes, #![debugger_visualizer], the compiler will encode the contents of the pretty printer in the .debug_gdb_scripts section of the ELF generated.

To provide pretty printers, developers create a pretty printer using the syntax provided above and reference it via the #![debugger_visualizer] attribute as follows:

#![debugger_visualizer(gdb_script_file = "../")]

Reference-level explanation

In rustc, a new built-in attribute #[debugger_visualizer] will be added which instructs the compiler to take the specified file path for a debugger visualizer and add it to the current binary being built. The file path specified must be relative to the location of the attribute and is resolved in a manner that is identical to how paths are resolved in the include_str! macro. This attribute will directly target modules which means the syntax #![debugger_visualizer] is also valid when placed at the module level. This would allow for this attribute to be used as a crate-level attribute as well which is different than a typical module item when placed at the top-level crate file, or

For example, the following uses of the attribute are valid:

Where contains:

#![debugger_visualizer(natvis_file = "../main.natvis")]

#[debugger_visualizer(natvis_file = "../foo.natvis")]
mod foo;

and contains:

#![debugger_visualizer(natvis_file = "../bar.natvis")]

In the first case, the attribute is applied to the crate as a crate-level attribute using the inner attribute syntax on the top-level crate source file. It is also added to the module foo using the outer attribute syntax. In the second case, the attribute is applied to the module bar using the inner attribute syntax which also is valid since it is still targeting a module.

The only valid targets for this attribute are modules or as a crate-level attribute. Using this attribute on any other target, for instance a type or a function, will cause rustc to raise a compiler error that will need to be resolved.

The #[debugger_visualizer] attribute will reserve multiple keys to be able to specify which type of visualizer is being applied. The following keys will be reserved as part of this RFC:

  • natvis_file
  • gdb_script_file

As more visualizer schemes arise, more keys may be added in the future to ensure a great debugging experience for any debugger that the Rust community sees fit.

For example, to specify that a Natvis file should be included in the binary being built, the following attribute should be added to the Rust source:

#![debugger_visualizer(natvis_file = "../foo.natvis")]

The same can be done to specify a GDB python debugger script:

#![debugger_visualizer(gdb_script_file = "../")]

Depending on the Rust target, the correct debugger visualizer will be selected and embedded in the output.

The Rust compiler will serialize the contents of the file specified via the #![debugger_visualizer] attribute and store it in the crate metadata. This attribute can be used multiple times to allow for multiple debugger visualizer files to be embedded for each crate. When generating the final binary, the contents of the visualizer file will be extracted from the crate metadata and written to a temp directory.

In the case of a Natvis file, #![debugger_visualizer(natvis_file = "../foo.natvis")] the compiler will set the /NATVIS:{.natvis file} MSVC linker flag for each of the Natvis files specified for the current crate as well as transitive dependencies if using the MSVC toolchain. This linker flag ensures that the specified Natvis files be embedded in the PDB generated for the binary being built. Any crate type that would generate a PDB would have all applicable Natvis files embedded.

In the case of GDB pretty printer, #![debugger_visualizer(gdb_script_file = "../")] the compiler will ensure that the set of pretty printers specified will be added to the .debug_gdb_scripts section of the ELF generated. The .debug_gdb_scripts section takes a list of null-terminated entries which specify scripts to load within GDB. This section supports listing files to load directly or embedding the contents of a script that will be executed. The Rust compiler currently embeds a visualizer for some types in the standard library via the .debug_gdb_scripts section using the former method. This attribute will embed the contents of the debugger script so that it will not need to reference a file in the search path. This has proven to be a more reliable route than depending on file paths which can be unstable at times.

There are a couple of reasons why the contents of a visualizer file passed into rustc will be serialized and encoded in the crate metadata.

First, Cargo is not the only build system used with Rust. There are others such as Bazel and Meson that support directly driving Rust. That might be a minor issue to the wider community but for the people that are working on those systems it is beneficial to pass this information through crate metadata. That way, the information enters the dependency graph only at the leaf nodes, and the code building the dependency graph doesn’t need to know how or why it flows through the dependency graph.

Secondly, there’s also been interest within the community of supporting binary crate packages. That is, compiling crates to rlibs, and then passing around rlibs directly and not rebuilding the entire library. Having to ensure that Natvis files are always passed along with rlibs as well could become very difficult especially when other debugger visualizations also become supported such as GDB’s debugger scripts and WinDbg’s JavaScript debugger scripts. Packaging these sorts of things in the rmeta for an rlib is simple, reliable and seems like the “right” thing to do here.

The Rust compiler will be responsible for collecting the entire set of visualizer files that were specified via the #![debugger_visualizer] attribute across all transitive crate dependencies and embedding them in the .debug_gdb_scripts section for a pretty printer or passing them to the /NATVIS MSVC linker flag. For example, in the case of a Natvis file, the contents of the Natvis files that were specified will be written to new files in a temp directory where they will be included from. The path of these files in the temp directory is what will be passed to the /NATVIS MSVC linker flag.


One drawback here is that a lot of types implement the Debug trait which already specifies how a type should be viewed when debugging. Implementing this RFC would mean a Rust developer would have to manually specify the Natvis for a type that may already have implemented the Debug trait which would be redundant. Currently, running the Debug trait in the debugger directly is not possible and so a manual definition would be required to have a debugger view.

Rationale and alternatives


This design provides a simple mechanism to specify a debugger visualizer file for a given crate and embed them in the resulting PDB or ELF depending on the target. It does not need any manual intervention by a Rust developer who is consuming such a crate to get the debugging experience to work when it is viewed under a debugger that supports the visualizer specified.

This design does not break any existing usage of rustc. This new feature would be strictly opt-in. The Natvis or GDB pretty printer syntax may not be familiar to many Rust developers which may lead to a period of learning the syntax. Since this feature would be optional, a consumer of a crate that has debugger visualizer for types would not need to go through this learning curve.


Supporting this option would mean that changes to rustc are not necessary. The changes would be limited to Cargo, which would be responsible for collecting the set of Natvis files and passing -Clink-arg=/NATVIS:{file-path} for each Natvis file.

The drawbacks for this option is that it will only collect Natvis files for the top-most manifest. This will not walk the dependency graph and find all relevant Natvis files so this will only work for targets that produce a DLL or EXE and not an .rlib.

Alternative 2: custom build script to set /NATVIS linker flag

Supporting this option would mean that changes to cargo and rustc are not necessary. Each individual crate would be able to create a custom build script that would set the rustc link-arg flag cargo:rustc-link-arg=/NATVIS:{file-path} for each Natvis file.

The drawbacks for this option is that it would force all Rust developers to manually create a build script and ensure it is kept up-to-date whenever the set of Natvis files are updated. This option would also have the same drawback as above, using a build script would be able to set the linker argument for adding Natvis but only for the top level crate. Any dependencies or transitive dependencies would not be able to set that linker argument in order to embed Natvis into the generated PDB. Also, for crates that generate an rlib, this would also run into an issue since a PDB isn’t generated for an rlib.

Alternative 3: inline Natvis XML fragments via attributes only

Supporting this option would mean that changes to cargo are not necessary. This option could be implemented via an attribute and/or proc-macro which would live outside of the compiler and could be ingested in via an outside crate. Rustc would need some changes in order to collect all of the attribute usage from the source code and create temporary files that could be passed to the MSVC linker via the /NATVIS linker arg. For crate dependencies, the Natvis fragments can be combined and embedded in the crate metadata so the Natvis can still be embedded in the final PDB generated.

The drawbacks for this option is that it would add a lot of bloat to the Rust source code directly if only the attribute syntax was supported. For types with many fields or types that need extensive amounts of Natvis to appropriately visualize them in a meaninngful way, this could distract from the contents of the code. Without being able to pull some of the more intricate Natvis descriptions into a separate standalone Natvis file, there may become an issue with the visibility of the source code. Also, if/when other debugger visualization formats are supported, it could become very obscure to read the source with large amounts of visualization scripts from multiple schemas all being directly embedded in source code.

Alternative 4: miri executes the MIR of a Debug impl within a debugger

Supporting this option would mean that changes to cargo and rustc are not necessary. This would have the added benefit of taking full advantage of existing implementations of the Debug trait. Many Rust developers already implement the Debug trait which is used to format how types should be viewed, this would only ease the debugging quality of Rust when viewed under any debugger. This option also has the added benefit of not requiring any changes to a crate from a Rust developer by leveraging existing Debug impls.

The drawbacks for this option is that this has not been fully investigated to determine its viability. This could be a great potential feature to ease debugging Rust but without concrete data to push this towards a potential RFC, I would assume supporting debugging in the systems that are already heavily used by the Rust community to be a higher priority. If/when this option becomes a bit more viable, there would be nothing stopping it from becoming a true feature.

#[cfg_attr(target_platform="msvc",link(file="foo.natvis", arg="/NATVIS"))]
struct Foo;

Supporting this option would mean that no new attributes would be needed for rustc. This attribute currently exists today and implementing this feature on top of this attribute would create an easy way to drop support for this feature in the future if need be.

The drawbacks for this option is that it seems a sub-optimal in terms of user experience. It requires the author to operate at a lower level of abstraction by having to use a more general attribute and annotating it to tackle a specific use case. Having a more targeted attribute, i.e. #![debugger_visualizer] allows for the author to simply specify which debugger visualizer file should be included and allow the compiler to select the right one under the covers.


By not implementing the feature described by this RFC, the debugging quality of Rust, especially on Windows, will be continue to be a difficult experience. The only visualizations that exist today are for parts of the standard library. External crates being consumed will not have debugging visualizations available and would make it difficult to understand what is being debugged.

Prior art

Many debuggers and languages already address this problem. Some do so in a way that is more flexible than others.

Briefly, we cover some of the known systems for debugger views:

  • Windows Debugger (WinDbg)
  • Visual Studio Debugger (VS Debugger)

Windows Debugger (WinDbg)

Natvis is a framework that customizes how native types appear when viewed under a debugger. The Visual Studio Natvis framework is supported out of the box on WinDbg. The debugger has the ability to load Natvis files via the .nvload command and directly apply them to types within loaded modules. WinDbg is also able to load .natvis files that have been embedded in the PDB for a binary and serve up the resulting views after applying those visualizations as well. This allows for a very smooth debugging experience which would not depend on any manual loading of Natvis files.

Visual Studio Debugger (VS Debugger)

The Visual Studio Debugger also supports Natvis. Similar to WinDbg, the VS Debugger is also able to apply Natvis on the fly by loading user-specified .natvis files. As with WinDbg, it also supports loading .natvis files that were embedded in the PDB for a binary and automatically applying the Natvis visualizations to types from that binary.

When using Visual Studio to build a C++ project, a developer can add a Natvis file via the .vcxproj file. To add a Natvis file to a project the following can be added to the .vcxproj file:

  <Natvis Include="Foo.natvis" />


GDB and LLDB also support debugger views but in a different way than WinDbg and the VS debugger. Natvis is not supported by either GDB or LLDB but they do support pretty printers. Pretty printers work in the similar manner as Natvis in which they tell the debugger to serve up a specific visualization when viewing a type in the debugger. Pretty printers are written as python scripts and then have to be imported in to the debugger. When a type is viewed under the debugger that has a pretty printer, that view is automatically shown. The Rust compiler currently defines a pretty printer for a limited set of types from within the standard library.

Unresolved questions


Future possibilities

Inline Natvis XML fragments via an attribute

Debugger visualizer support for Rust could be improved upon by adding support for in-source visualizer definitions via the #![debugger_visualizer] attribute or a new attribute. Example:

/// A rectangle in first quadrant
        <DisplayString>({x},{y}) + ({dx}, {dy})</DisplayString>
        <Item Name="LowerLeft">({x}, {y})</Item>
        <Item Name="UpperLeft">({x}, {y + dy})</Item>
        <Item Name="UpperRight">({x + dx}, {y + dy})</Item>
        <Item Name="LowerRight">({x + dx}, {y})</Item>
struct FancyRect {
    x: f32,
    y: f32,
    dx: f32,
    dy: f32,

Currently the #[debugger_visualizer] attribute is only allowed to target modules which includes being used as crate-level attribute when targeting the top-level *.rs source file. This can be updated to allow targeting types as well if the same attribute was to be re-used to support this.

Inline Natvis XML fragments via a macro

We may want to allow developers to provide Natvis descriptions using a pseudo macro-call syntax, rather than an attribute. One disadvantage of using attributes is that, lexically, attributes must be specified at the definition of a type. Since Natvis descriptions could be quite large, this would make it hard to read or edit the type definition while also seeing the rustdoc comments.

To solve this, we could define a natvis! macro, and use it like so:

use std::dbgvis::natvis;

/// A rectangle in first quadrant
struct FancyRect {
    x: f32,
    y: f32,
    dx: f32,
    dy: f32,

natvis!(FancyRect, r#"
    <DisplayString>({x},{y}) + ({dx}, {dy})</DisplayString>
    <Item Name="LowerLeft">({x}, {y})</Item>
    <Item Name="UpperLeft">({x}, {y + dy})</Item>
    <Item Name="UpperRight">({x + dx}, {y + dy})</Item>
    <Item Name="LowerRight">({x + dx}, {y})</Item>

The natvis! call would specify the name of the type the visualization applies to, along with the XML fragment. This would give developers the freedom to place visualizations anywhere in their crate, rather than at the definition of each type.