Replace slice.tail(), slice.init() with new methods slice.split_first(), slice.split_last().


The slice.tail() and slice.init() methods are relics from an older version of the slice APIs that included a head() method. slice no longer has head(), instead it has first() which returns an Option, and last() also returns an Option. While it’s generally accepted that indexing / slicing should panic on out-of-bounds access, tail()/init() are the only remaining methods that panic without taking an explicit index.

A conservative change here would be to simply change head()/tail() to return Option, but I believe we can do better. These operations are actually specializations of split_at() and should be replaced with methods that return Option<(&T,&[T])>. This makes the common operation of processing the first/last element and the remainder of the list more ergonomic, with very low impact on code that only wants the remainder (such code only has to add .1 to the expression). This has an even more significant effect on code that uses the mutable variants.

Detailed design

The methods head(), tail(), head_mut(), and tail_mut() will be removed, and new methods will be added:

fn split_first(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>;
fn split_last(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>;
fn split_first_mut(&mut self) -> Option<(&mut T, &mut [T])>;
fn split_last_mut(&mut self) -> Option<(&mut T, &mut [T])>;

Existing code using tail() or init() could be translated as follows:

  • slice.tail() becomes &slice[1..]
  • slice.init() becomes &slice[..slice.len()-1] or slice.split_last().unwrap().1

It is expected that a lot of code using tail() or init() is already either testing len() explicitly or using first() / last() and could be refactored to use split_first() / split_last() in a more ergonomic fashion. As an example, the following code from typeck:

if variant.fields.len() > 0 {
    for field in variant.fields.init() {

can be rewritten as:

if let Some((_, init_fields)) = variant.fields.split_last() {
    for field in init_fields {

And the following code from compiletest:

let argv0 = args[0].clone();
let args_ = args.tail();

can be rewritten as:

let (argv0, args_) = args.split_first().unwrap();

(the clone() ended up being unnecessary).


The expression slice.split_last().unwrap().1 is more cumbersome than slice.init(). However, this is primarily due to the need for .unwrap() rather than the need for .1, and would affect the more conservative solution (of making the return type Option<&[T]>) as well. Furthermore, the more idiomatic translation is &slice[..slice.len()-1], which can be used any time the slice is already stored in a local variable.


Only change the return type to Option without adding the tuple. This is the more conservative change mentioned above. It still has the same drawback of requiring .unwrap() when translating existing code. And it’s unclear what the function names should be (the current names are considered suboptimal).

Just deprecate the current methods without adding replacements. This gets rid of the odd methods today, but it doesn’t do anything to make it easier to safely perform these operations.