Allow a x...y expression to create an inclusive range.


There are several use-cases for inclusive ranges, that semantically include both end-points. For example, iterating from 0_u8 up to and including some number n can be done via for _ in 0..n + 1 at the moment, but this will fail if n is 255. Furthermore, some iterable things only have a successor operation that is sometimes sensible, e.g., 'a'..'{' is equivalent to the inclusive range 'a'...'z': there’s absolutely no reason that { is after z other than a quirk of the representation.

The ... syntax mirrors the current .. used for exclusive ranges: more dots means more elements.

Detailed design

std::ops defines

pub struct RangeInclusive<T> {
    pub start: T,
    pub end: T,

pub struct RangeToInclusive<T> {
    pub end: T,

Writing a...b in an expression desugars to std::ops::RangeInclusive { start: a, end: b }. Writing ...b in an expression desugars to std::ops::RangeToInclusive { end: b }.

RangeInclusive implements the standard traits (Clone, Debug etc.), and implements Iterator.

The use of ... in a pattern remains as testing for inclusion within that range, not a struct match.

The author cannot forsee problems with breaking backward compatibility. In particular, one tokenisation of syntax like 1... now would be 1. .. i.e. a floating point number on the left, however, fortunately, it is actually tokenised like 1 ..., and is hence an error with the current compiler.

This struct definition is maximally consistent with the existing Range. a..b and a...b are the same size and have the same fields, just with the expected difference in semantics.

The range a...b contains all x where a <= x && x <= b. As such, an inclusive range is non-empty iff a <= b. When the range is iterable, a non-empty range will produce at least one item when iterated. Because T::MAX...T::MAX is a non-empty range, the iteration needs extra handling compared to a half-open Range. As such, .next() on an empty range y...y will produce the value y and adjust the range such that !(start <= end). Providing such a range is not a burden on the T type as any such range is acceptable, and only PartialOrd is required so it can be satisfied with an incomparable value n with !(n <= n). A caller must not, in general, expect any particular start or end after iterating, and is encouraged to detect empty ranges with ExactSizeIterator::is_empty instead of by observing fields directly.

Note that because ranges are not required to be well-formed, they have a much stronger bound than just needing successor function: they require a b is-reachable-from a predicate (as a <= b). Providing that efficiently for a DAG walk, or even a simpler forward list walk, is a substantially harder thing to do than providing a pair (x, y) such that !(x <= y).

Implementation note: For currently-iterable types, the initial implementation of this will have the range become 1...0 after yielding the final value, as that can be done using the replace_one and replace_zero methods on the existing (but unstable) Step trait. It’s expected, however, that the trait will change to allow more type-appropriate impls. For example, a num::BigInt may rather become empty by incrementing start, as Range does, since it doesn’t to need to worry about overflow. Even for primitives, it could be advantageous to choose a different implementation, perhaps using .overflowing_add(1) and swapping on overflow, or a...a could become (a+1)...a where possible and a...(a-1) otherwise.


There’s a mismatch between pattern-... and expression-..., in that the former doesn’t undergo the same desugaring as the latter. (Although they represent essentially the same thing semantically.)

The ... vs. .. distinction is the exact inversion of Ruby’s syntax.

This proposal makes the post-iteration values of the start and end fields constant, and thus useless. Some of the alternatives would expose the last value returned from the iteration, through a more complex interface.


An alternate syntax could be used, like ..=. There has been discussion, but there wasn’t a clear winner.

This RFC proposes single-ended syntax with only an end, ...b, but not with only a start (a...) or unconstrained .... This balance could be reevaluated for usefulness and conflicts with other proposed syntax.

  • RangeInclusive could be a struct including a finished field. This makes it easier for the struct to always be iterable, as the extra field is set once the ends match. But having the extra field in a language-level desugaring, catering to one library use-case is a little non-“hygienic”. It is especially strange that the field isn’t consistent across the different ... desugarings. And the presence of the public field encourages checkinging it, which can be misleading as r.finished == false does not guarantee that r.count() > 0.
  • RangeInclusive could be an enum with Empty and NonEmpty variants. This is cleaner than the finished field, but still has the problem that there’s no invariant maintained: while an Empty range is definitely empty, a NonEmpty range might actually be empty. And requiring matching on every use of the type is less ergonomic. For example, the clamp RFC would naturally use a RangeInclusive parameter, but because it still needs to assert!(start <= end) in the NonEmpty arm, the noise of the Empty vs NonEmpty match provides it no value.
  • a...b only implements IntoIterator, not Iterator, by converting to a different type that does have the field. However, this means that a.. .b behaves differently to a..b, so (a...b).map(|x| ...) doesn’t work (the .. version of that is used reasonably often, in the author’s experience)
  • The name of the end field could be different, perhaps last, to reflect its different (inclusive) semantics from the end (exclusive) field on the other ranges.

Unresolved questions

None so far.


  • In rust-lang/rfcs#1320, this RFC was amended to change the RangeInclusive type from a struct with a finished field to an enum.
  • In rust-lang/rfcs#1980, this RFC was amended to change the RangeInclusive type from an enum to a struct with just start and end fields.