• Convert function call a(b, ..., z) into an overloadable operator via the traits Fn<A,R>, FnShare<A,R>, and FnOnce<A,R>, where A is a tuple (B, ..., Z) of the types B...Z of the arguments b...z, and R is the return type. The three traits differ in their self argument (&mut self vs &self vs self).
  • Remove the proc expression form and type.
  • Remove the closure types (though the form lives on as syntactic sugar, see below).
  • Modify closure expressions to permit specifying by-reference vs by-value capture and the receiver type:
    • Specifying by-reference vs by-value closures:
      • ref |...| expr indicates a closure that captures upvars from the environment by reference. This is what closures do today and the behavior will remain unchanged, other than requiring an explicit keyword.
      • |...| expr will therefore indicate a closure that captures upvars from the environment by value. As usual, this is either a copy or move depending on whether the type of the upvar implements Copy.
    • Specifying receiver mode (orthogonal to capture mode above):
      • |a, b, c| expr is equivalent to |&mut: a, b, c| expr
      • |&mut: ...| expr indicates that the closure implements Fn
      • |&: ...| expr indicates that the closure implements FnShare
      • |: a, b, c| expr indicates that the closure implements FnOnce.
  • Add syntactic sugar where |T1, T2| -> R1 is translated to a reference to one of the fn traits as follows:
    • |T1, ..., Tn| -> R is translated to Fn<(T1, ..., Tn), R>
    • |&mut: T1, ..., Tn| -> R is translated to Fn<(T1, ..., Tn), R>
    • |&: T1, ..., Tn| -> R is translated to FnShare<(T1, ..., Tn), R>
    • |: T1, ..., Tn| -> R is translated to FnOnce<(T1, ..., Tn), R>

One aspect of closures that this RFC does not describe is that we must permit trait references to be universally quantified over regions as closures are today. A description of this change is described below under Unresolved questions and the details will come in a forthcoming RFC.


Over time we have observed a very large number of possible use cases for closures. The goal of this RFC is to create a unified closure model that encompasses all of these use cases.

Specific goals (explained in more detail below):

  1. Give control over inlining to users.
  2. Support closures that bind by reference and closures that bind by value.
  3. Support different means of accessing the closure environment, corresponding to self, &self, and &mut self methods.

As a side benefit, though not a direct goal, the RFC reduces the size/complexity of the language’s core type system by unifying closures and traits.

The core idea: unifying closures and traits

The core idea of the RFC is to unify closures, procs, and traits. There are a number of reasons to do this. First, it simplifies the language, because closures, procs, and traits already served similar roles and there was sometimes a lack of clarity about which would be the appropriate choice. However, in addition, the unification offers increased expressiveness and power, because traits are a more generic model that gives users more control over optimization.

The basic idea is that function calls become an overridable operator. Therefore, an expression like a(...) will be desugar into an invocation of one of the following traits:

trait Fn<A,R> {
    fn call(&mut self, args: A) -> R;

trait FnShare<A,R> {
    fn call_share(&self, args: A) -> R;

trait FnOnce<A,R> {
    fn call_once(self, args: A) -> R;

Essentially, a(b, c, d) becomes sugar for one of the following:

Fn::call(&mut a, (b, c, d))
FnShare::call_share(&a, (b, c, d))
FnOnce::call_once(a, (b, c, d))

To integrate with this, closure expressions are then translated into a fresh struct that implements one of those three traits. The precise trait is currently indicated using explicit syntax but may eventually be inferred.

This change gives user control over virtual vs static dispatch. This works in the same way as generic types today:

fn foo(x: &mut Fn<(int,),int>) -> int {
    x(2) // virtual dispatch

fn foo<F:Fn<(int,),int>>(x: &mut F) -> int {
    x(2) // static dispatch

The change also permits returning closures, which is not currently possible (the example relies on the proposed impl syntax from rust-lang/rfcs#105):

fn foo(x: impl Fn<(int,),int>) -> impl Fn<(int,),int> {
    |v| x(v * 2)

Basically, in this design there is nothing special about a closure. Closure expressions are simply a convenient way to generate a struct that implements a suitable Fn trait.

Bind by reference vs bind by value

When creating a closure, it is now possible to specify whether the closure should capture variables from its environment (“upvars”) by reference or by value. The distinction is indicated using the leading keyword ref:

|| foo(a, b)      // captures `a` and `b` by value

ref || foo(a, b)  // captures `a` and `b` by reference, as today

Reasons to bind by value

Bind by value is useful when creating closures that will escape from the stack frame that created them, such as task bodies (spawn(|| ...)) or combinators. It is also useful for moving values out of a closure, though it should be possible to enable that with bind by reference as well in the future.

Reasons to bind by reference

Bind by reference is useful for any case where the closure is known not to escape the creating stack frame. This frequently occurs when using closures to encapsulate common control-flow patterns:

map.insert_or_update_with(key, value, || ...)
opt_val.unwrap_or_else(|| ...)

In such cases, the closure frequently wishes to read or modify local variables on the enclosing stack frame. Generally speaking, then, such closures should capture variables by-reference – that is, they should store a reference to the variable in the creating stack frame, rather than copying the value out. Using a reference allows the closure to mutate the variables in place and also avoids moving values that are simply read temporarily.

The vast majority of closures in use today are should be “by reference” closures. The only exceptions are those closures that wish to “move out” from an upvar (where we commonly use the so-called “option dance” today). In fact, even those closures could be “by reference” closures, but we will have to extend the inference to selectively identify those variables that must be moved and take those “by value”.

Detailed design

Closure expression syntax

Closure expressions will have the following form (using EBNF notation, where [] denotes optional things and {} denotes a comma-separated list):

CLOSURE = ['ref'] '|' [SELF] {ARG} '|' ['->' TYPE] EXPR
SELF    =  ':' | '&' ':' | '&' 'mut' ':'
ARG     = ID [ ':' TYPE ]

The optional keyword ref is used to indicate whether this closure captures by reference or by value.

Closures are always translated into a fresh struct type with one field per upvar. In a by-value closure, the types of these fields will be the same as the types of the corresponding upvars (modulo &mut reborrows, see below). In a by-reference closure, the types of these fields will be a suitable reference (&, &mut, etc) to the variables being borrowed.

By-value closures

The default form for a closure is by-value. This implies that all upvars which are referenced are copied/moved into the closure as appropriate. There is one special case: if the type of the value to be moved is &mut, we will “reborrow” the value when it is copied into the closure. That is, given an upvar x of type &'a mut T, the value which is actually captured will have type &'b mut T where 'b <= 'a. This rule is consistent with our general treatment of &mut, which is to aggressively reborrow wherever possible; moreover, this rule cannot introduce additional compilation errors, it can only make more programs successfully typecheck.

By-reference closures

A by-reference closure is a convenience form in which values used in the closure are converted into references before being captured. By-reference closures are always rewritable into by-value closures if desired, but the rewrite can often be cumbersome and annoying.

Here is a (rather artificial) example of a by-reference closure in use:

let in_vec: Vec<int> = ...;
let mut out_vec: Vec<int> = Vec::new();
let opt_int: Option<int> = ...; |v| {
    in_vec.fold(v, |a, &b| a + b)

This could be rewritten into a by-value closure as follows:

let in_vec: Vec<int> = ...;
let mut out_vec: Vec<int> = Vec::new();
let opt_int: Option<int> = ...;{
    let in_vec = &in_vec;
    let out_vec = &mut in_vec;
    |v| {
        in_vec.fold(v, |a, &b| a + b)

In this case, the capture closed over two variables, in_vec and out_vec. As you can see, the compiler automatically infers, for each variable, how it should be borrowed and inserts the appropriate capture.

In the body of a ref closure, the upvars continue to have the same type as they did in the outer environment. For example, the type of a reference to in_vec in the above example is always Vec<int>, whether or not it appears as part of a ref closure. This is not only convenient, it is required to make it possible to infer whether each variable is borrowed as an &T or &mut T borrow.

Note that there are some cases where the compiler internally employs a form of borrow that is not available in the core language, &uniq. This borrow does not permit aliasing (like &mut) but does not require mutability (like &). This is required to allow transparent closing over of &mut pointers as described in this blog post.

Evolutionary note: It is possible to evolve by-reference closures in the future in a backwards compatible way. The goal would be to cause more programs to type-check by default. Two possible extensions follow:

  • Detect when values are moved and hence should be taken by value rather than by reference. (This is only applicable to once closures.)
  • Detect when it is only necessary to borrow a sub-path. Imagine a closure like ref || use(&context.variable_map). Currently, this closure will borrow context, even though it only uses the field variable_map. As a result, it is sometimes necessary to rewrite the closure to have the form {let v = &context.variable_map; || use(v)}. In the future, however, we could extend the inference so that rather than borrowing context to create the closure, we would borrow context.variable_map directly.

Closure sugar in trait references

The current type for closures, |T1, T2| -> R, will be repurposed as syntactic sugar for a reference to the appropriate Fn trait. This shorthand be used any place that a trait reference is appropriate. The full type will be written as one of the following:

<'a...'z> |T1...Tn|: K -> R
<'a...'z> |&mut: T1...Tn|: K -> R
<'a...'z> |&: T1...Tn|: K -> R
<'a...'z> |: T1...Tn|: K -> R

Each of which would then be translated into the following trait references, respectively:

<'a...'z> Fn<(T1...Tn), R> + K
<'a...'z> Fn<(T1...Tn), R> + K
<'a...'z> FnShare<(T1...Tn), R> + K
<'a...'z> FnOnce<(T1...Tn), R> + K

Note that the bound lifetimes 'a...'z are not in scope for the bound K.


This model is more complex than the existing model in some respects (but the existing model does not serve the full set of desired use cases).


There is one aspect of the design that is still under active discussion:

Introduce a more generic sugar. It was proposed that we could introduce Trait(A, B) -> C as syntactic sugar for Trait<(A,B),C> rather than retaining the form |A,B| -> C. This is appealing but removes the correspondence between the expression form and the corresponding type. One (somewhat open) question is whether there will be additional traits that mirror fn types that might benefit from this more general sugar.

Tweak trait names. In conjunction with the above, there is some concern that the type name fn(A) -> B for a bare function with no environment is too similar to Fn(A) -> B for a closure. To remedy that, we could change the name of the trait to something like Closure(A) -> B (naturally the other traits would be renamed to match).

Then there are a large number of permutations and options that were largely rejected:

Only offer by-value closures. We tried this and found it required a lot of painful rewrites of perfectly reasonable code.

Make by-reference closures the default. We felt this was inconsistent with the language as a whole, which tends to make “by value” the default (e.g., x vs ref x in patterns, x vs &x in expressions, etc.).

Use a capture clause syntax that borrows individual variables. “By value” closures combined with let statements already serve this role. Simply specifying “by-reference closure” also gives us room to continue improving inference in the future in a backwards compatible way. Moreover, the syntactic space around closures expressions is extremely constrained and we were unable to find a satisfactory syntax, particularly when combined with self-type annotations. Finally, if we decide we do want the ability to have “mostly by-value” closures, we can easily extend the current syntax by writing something like (ref x, ref mut y) || ... etc.

Retain the proc expression form. It was proposed that we could retain the proc expression form to specify a by-value closure and have || expressions be by-reference. Frankly, the main objection to this is that nobody likes the proc keyword.

Use variadic generics in place of tuple arguments. While variadic generics are an interesting addition in their own right, we’d prefer not to introduce a dependency between closures and variadic generics. Having all arguments be placed into a tuple is also a simpler model overall. Moreover, native ABIs on platforms of interest treat a structure passed by value identically to distinct arguments. Finally, given that trait calls have the “Rust” ABI, which is not specified, we can always tweak the rules if necessary (though there are advantages for tooling when the Rust ABI closely matches the native ABI).

Use inference to determine the self type of a closure rather than an annotation. We retain this option for future expansion, but it is not clear whether we can always infer the self type of a closure. Moreover, using inference rather a default raises the question of what to do for a type like |int| -> uint, where inference is not possible.

Default to something other than &mut self. It is our belief that this is the most common use case for closures.

Transition plan

TBD. pcwalton is working furiously as we speak.

Unresolved questions

What relationship should there be between the closure traits? On the one hand, there is clearly a relationship between the traits. For example, given a FnShare, one can easily implement Fn:

impl<A,R,T:FnShare<A,R>> Fn<A,R> for T {
    fn call(&mut self, args: A) -> R {

Similarly, given a Fn or FnShare, you can implement FnOnce. From this, one might derive a subtrait relationship:

trait FnOnce { ... }
trait Fn : FnOnce { ... }
trait FnShare : Fn { ... }

Employing this relationship, however, would require that any manual implement of FnShare or Fn must implement adapters for the other two traits, since a subtrait cannot provide a specialized default of supertrait methods (yet?). On the other hand, having no relationship between the traits limits reuse, at least without employing explicit adapters.

Other alternatives that have been proposed to address the problem:

  • Use impls to implement the fn traits in terms of one another, similar to what is shown above. The problem is that we would need to implement FnOnce both for all T where T:Fn and for all T where T:FnShare. This will yield coherence errors unless we extend the language with a means to declare traits as mutually exclusive (which might be valuable, but no such system has currently been proposed nor agreed upon).

  • Have the compiler implement multiple traits for a single closure. As with supertraits, this would require manual implements to implement multiple traits. It would also require generic users to write T:Fn+FnMut or else employ an explicit adapter. On the other hand, it preserves the “one method per trait” rule described below.

Can we optimize away the trait vtable? The runtime representation of a reference &Trait to a trait object (and hence, under this proposal, closures as well) is a pair of pointers (data, vtable). It has been proposed that we might be able to optimize this representation to (data, fnptr) so long as Trait has a single function. This slightly improves the performance of invoking the function as one need not indirect through the vtable. The actual implications of this on performance are unclear, but it might be a reason to keep the closure traits to a single method.

Closures that are quantified over lifetimes

A separate RFC is needed to describe bound lifetimes in trait references. For example, today one can write a type like <'a> |&'a A| -> &'a B, which indicates a closure that takes and returns a reference with the same lifetime specified by the caller at each call-site. Note that a trait reference like Fn<(&'a A), &'a B>, while syntactically similar, does not have the same meaning because it lacks the universal quantifier <'a>. Therefore, in the second case, 'a refers to some specific lifetime 'a, rather than being a lifetime parameter that is specified at each callsite. The high-level summary of the change therefore is to permit trait references like <'a> Fn<(&'a A), &'a B>; in this case, the value of <'a> will be specified each time a method or other member of the trait is accessed.