Remove the need for explicit T: 'x annotations on structs. We will infer their presence based on the fields of the struct. In short, if the struct contains a reference, directly or indirectly, to T with lifetime 'x, then we will infer that T: 'x is a requirement:

struct Foo<'x, T> {
  // inferred: `T: 'x`
  field: &'x T

Explicit annotations remain as an option used to control trait object lifetime defaults, and simply for backwards compatibility.


Today, when you write generic struct definitions that contain references, those structs require where-clauses of the form T: 'a:

struct SharedRef<'a, T>
  where T: 'a // <-- currently required
  data: &'a T

These clauses are called outlives requirements, and the next section (“Background”) goes into a bit more detail on what they mean semantically. The overriding goal of this RFC is to make these where T: 'a annotations unnecessary by inferring them.

Anecdotally, these annotations are not well understood. Instead, the most common thing is to wait and add the where-clauses when the compiler requests that you do so. This is annoying, of course, but the annotations also clutter up the code, and add to the perception of Rust’s complexity.

Experienced Rust users may have noticed that the compiler already performs a similar seeming kind of inference in other settings. In particular, in function definitions or impls, outlives requirements are rarely needed. This is due to the mechanism of known as implied bounds (also explained in more detail in the next section), which allows a function (resp. impl) to infer outlives requirements based on the types of its parameters (resp. input types):

fn foo<'a, T>(r: SharedRef<'a, T>) {
  // Gets to assume that `T: 'a` holds, because it is a requirement
  // of the parameter type `SharedRef<'a, T>`.

This RFC proposes a mechanism for also inferring the outlives requirements on structs. This is not an extension of the implied bounds system; in general, field types of a struct are not considered “inputs” to the struct definition, and hence implied bounds do not apply. Indeed, the annotations that we are attempting to infer are used to drive the implied bounds system. Instead, to infer these outlives requirements on structs, we will use a specialized, fixed-point inference similar to variance inference.

There is one other, relatively obscure, place where explicit lifetime annotations are used today: trait object lifetime defaults (RFC 599). The interaction there is discussed in the Guide-Level Explanation below.

Background: outlives requirements today

RFC 34 established the current rules around “outlives requirements”. Specifically, in order for a reference type &'a T to be “well formed” (valid), the compiler must know that the type T “outlives” the lifetime 'a – meaning that all references contained in the type T must be valid for the lifetime 'a. So, for example, the type i32 outlives any lifetime, including 'static, since it has no references at all. (The “outlives” rules were later tweaked by RFC 1214 to be more syntactic in nature.)

In practice, this means that in Rust, when you define a struct that contains references to a generic type, or references to other references, you need to add various where clauses for that struct type to be considered valid. For example, consider the following (currently invalid) struct SharedRef:

struct SharedRef<'a, T> {
  data: &'a T

In general, for a struct definition to be valid, its field types must be known to be well-formed, based only on the struct’s where-clauses. In this case, the field data has the &'a T – for that to be well-formed, we must know that T: 'a holds. Since we do not know what T is, we require that a where-clause be added to the struct header to assert that T: 'a must hold:

struct SharedRef<'a, T>
  where T: 'a // currently required...
  data: &'a T // that we know that this field's type is well-formed

In principle, similar where clauses would be required on generic functions or impl to ensure that their parameters or inputs are well-formed. However, as you may have noticed, this is not the case. For example, the following function is valid as written:

fn foo<'a, T>(x: &'a T) {

This is due to Rust’s support for implied bounds – in particular, every function and impl assumes that the types of its inputs are well-formed. In this case, since foo can assume that &'a T is well-formed, it can also deduce that T: 'a must hold, and hence we do not require where-clauses asserting this fact. (Currently, implied bounds are only used for lifetime requirements; pending RFC 2089 proposes to extend this mechanism to other sorts of bounds.)

Guide-level explanation

This RFC does not introduce any new concepts – rather, it (mostly) removes the need to be actively aware of outlives requirements. In particular, the compiler will infer the T: 'a requirements on behalf of the programmer. Therefore, the SharedRef struct we have seen in the previous section would be accepted without any annotation:

struct SharedRef<'a, T> {
    r: &'a T

The compiler would infer that T: 'a must hold for the type SharedRef<'a, T> to be valid. In some cases, the requirement may be inferred through several structs. So, for the struct Indirect below, we would also infer that T: 'a is required, because Indirect contains a SharedRef<'a, T>:

struct Indirect<'a, T> {
  r: SharedRef<'a, T>

Where explicit annotations would still be required

Explicit outlives annotations would primarily be required in cases where the lifetime and the type are combined within the value of an associated type, but not in one of the impl’s input types. For example:

trait MakeRef<'a> {
  type Type;

impl<'a, T> MakeRef<'a> for Vec<T>
  where T: 'a // still required
  type Type = &'a T;

In this case, the impl has two inputs – the lifetime 'a and the type Vec<T> (note that 'a and T are the impl parameters; the inputs come from the parameters of the trait that is being implemented). Neither of these inputs requires that T: 'a. So, when we try to specify the value of the associated type as &'a T, we still require a where clause to infer that T: 'a must hold.

In turn, if this associated type were used in a struct, where-clauses would be required. As we’ll see in the reference-level explanation, this is a consequence of the fact that we do inference without regard for associated type normalization, but it makes for a relatively simple rule – explicit where clauses are needed in the preseence of impls like the one above:

struct Foo<'a, T>
  where T: 'a // still required, not inferred from `field`
  field: <Vec<T> as MakeRef<'a>>::Type

As the algorithm is currently framed, outlives requirements written on traits must also be explicitly propagated; however, this will typically occur as part of the existing bounds:

trait Trait<'a> where Self: 'a {
  type Type;

struct Foo<'a, T>
  where T: Trait<'a> // implies `T: 'a` already, so no error
  r: <T as Trait<'a>>::Type // requires that `T: 'a` to be WF

Trait object lifetime defaults

RFC 599 (later amended by RFC 1156) specified the defaulting rules for trait object types. Typically, a trait object type that appears as a parameter to a struct is given the implicit bound 'static; hence Box<Debug> defaults to Box<Debug + 'static>. References to trait objects, however, are given by default the lifetime of the reference; hence &'a Debug defaults to &'a (Debug + 'a).

Structs that contain explicit T: 'a where-clauses, however, use the default given lifetime 'a as the default for trait objects. Therefore, given a struct definition like the following:

struct Ref<'a, T> where T: 'a + ?Sized { .. }

The type Ref<'x, Debug> defaults to Ref<'x, Debug + 'x> and not Ref<'x, Debug + 'static>. Effectively the where T: 'a declaration acts as a kind of signal that Ref acts as a “reference to T”.

This RFC does not change these defaulting rules. In particular, these defaults are applied before where-clause inference takes place, and hence are not affected by the results. Trait object defaulting therefore requires an explicit where T: 'a declaration on the struct; in fact, such explicit declarations can be thought of as existing primarily for the purpose of informing trait object lifetime defaults, since they are typically not needed otherwise.

Long-range errors, and why they are considered unlikely

Initially, we avoided inferring the T: 'a annotations on struct types in part out of a fear of “long-range” error messages, where it becomes hard to see the origin of an outlives requirement. Consider for example a setup like this one:

struct Indirect<'a, T> {
  field: Direct<'a, T>

struct Direct<'a, T> {
  field: &'a T

Here, both of these structs require that T: 'a, but the requirement is not written explicitly. If you have access to the full definition of Direct, it might be obvious that the requirement arises from the &'a T type, but discovering this for Indirect requires looking deeply into the definitions of all types that it references.

In principle, such errors can occur, but there are many reasons to believe that “long-range errors” will not be a source of problems in practice:

  • The inferred bounds approach ensures that code that is given (e.g., as a parameter) an existing Indirect or Direct value will already be able to assume the required outlives relationship holds.
  • Code that creates an Indirect or Direct value must also create the &'a T reference found in Direct, and creating that reference would only be legal if T: 'a.

Put another way, think back on your experience writing Rust code: how often do you get an error that is solved by writing where T: 'a or where 'a: 'b outside of a struct definition? At least in the author’s experience, such errors are quite infrequent.

That said, long-range errors can still occur, typically around impls and associated type values, as mentioned in the previous section. For example, the following impl would not compile:

trait MakeRef<'a> {
  type Type;

impl<'a, T> MakeRef<'a> for Vec<T> {
  type Type = Indirect<'a, T>;

Here, we would be missing a where-clause that T: 'a due to the type Indirect<'a, T>, just as we saw in the previous section. In such cases, tweaking the wording of the error could help to make the cause clearer. Similarly to auto traits, the idea would be to help trace the path that led to the T: 'a requirement on the user’s behalf:

error[E0309]: the type `T` may not live long enough
 --> src/
 6 |   type Type = Indirect<'a, T>;
   |   ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the type `Indirect<'a, T>` requires that `T: 'a`
   = note: `Indirect<'a, T>` requires that `T: 'a` because it contains a field of type `Direct<'a, T>`
   = note: `Direct<'a, T>` requires that `T: 'a` because it contains a field of type `&'a T`

Impact on semver

Due to the implied bounds rules, it is currently the case that removing where T: 'a annotations is potentially a breaking change. After this RFC, the rule is a bit more subtle: removing an annotation is still potentially a breaking change (even if it would be inferred), due to the trait object rules; but also, adding or removing a field of type &'a T could affect the results of inference, and hence may be a breaking change. As an example, consider a struct like the following:

struct Iter<'a, T> {
  vec: &'a Vec<T> // Implies: `T: 'a`

Now imagine a function that takes Iter as an argument:

fn foo<'a, T>(iter: Iter<'a, T>) { .. }

Under this RFC, this function can assume that T: 'a due to the implied bounds of its parameter type. But if Iter<'a, T> were changed to (e.g.) remove the field vec, then it may no longer require that T: 'a holds, and hence foo() would no longer have the implied bound that T: 'a holds.

This situation is considered unlikely: typically, if a struct has a lifetime parameter (such as the Iter struct), then the fact that it contains (or may contain) a borrowed reference is rather fundamental to how it works. If that borrowed reference were to be removed entirely, then the struct’s API will likely be changing in other incompatible ways, since that implies that the struct is now taking ownership of data it used to borrow (or else has access to less data than it did before).

Note: This is not the only case where changes to private field types can cause downstream errors: introducing object types can inhibit auto traits like Send and Sync. What these have in common is that they are both entangled with Rust’s memory safety checking. It is commonly observed that parallelim is anti-encapsulation, in that, to know if two bits of code can be run in parallel, you must know what data they access, but for the strongest encapsulation, you wish to hide that fact. Memory safety has a similar property: to guarantee that references are always valid, we need to know where they appear, even if it is deeply nested within a struct hierarchy. Probably the best way to mitigate these sorts of subtle semver complications is to have a tool that detects and warns for incompatible changes.

Reference-level explanation

The intention is that the outlives inference takes place at the same time in the compiler pipeline as variance inference. In particular, this is after the point where we have been able to construct “semantics” or “internal” types from the HIR (so we don’t have to define the inference in a purely syntactic fashion). However, this is still relatively early, so we wish to avoid doing things like solving traits. Like variance inference, the new inference is an iterative algorithm that continues to infer additional requirements until a fixed point is reached.

For each struct declared by the user, we will infer a set of implicit outlives annotations. These annotations take one of several forms:

  • 'a: 'b – two lifetimes (typically parameters of the trait) are required to outlive one another
  • T: 'a – a type parameter T of the trait is required to outlive the lifetime 'a, which is either a parameter of the trait or 'static
  • <T as Trait<..>>::Item: 'a – the value of an associated type is required to outlive the lifetime 'a, which is either a parameter of the trait or 'static (here T represents an arbitrary type).

We will infer a minimal set of annotations A[S] for each struct S. This set must meet the constraints derived by the following algorithm.

First, if the struct contains a where-clause C matching the above forms, then we add the constraint that C in A[S]. So, for example, in the following struct:

struct Foo<'a, T> where T: 'a { .. }

we would add the constraint that (T: 'a) in A[S].

Next, for each field f of type T_f of the struct S, we derive each outlives requirement that is needed for T_f to be well-formed and require that those be included in A[S]. This is done on the unnormalized type T_f. These rules can be derived in a fairly straightforward way from the inference rules given in RFC 1214. We won’t give an exhaustive accounting of the rules, but will just note the outlines of the algorithm:

  • A field containing a reference type like &'a T naturally requires that T: 'a must be satisfied (here T represents “some type” and not necessarily a type parameter; for example, &'a &'b i32 would lead to the outlives requirement that 'b: 'a).
  • A reference to a struct like Foo<'a, T> may also require outlives requirements. This is determined by checking the (current) value of A[Foo], after substituting its parameters.
  • For an associated type reference like <T as BarTrait<'a>>::Type, we do not attempt normalization, but rather just check that T is well-formed.
    • This is partly looking forward to a time when, at this stage, we may not know which trait is being projected from (in the compiler as currently implemented, we already do).
    • Note that we do not infer additional requirements on traits, we simply use the values given by users.
    • Note further that where-clauses declared on impls are never relevant here.

Once inference is complete, the implicit outlives requirements inferred as part of A become part of the predicates on the struct for all intents and purposes after this point.

Note that inference is not “complete” – i.e., it is not guaranteed to find all the outlives requirements that are ultimately required (in particular, it does not find those that arise through normalization). Furthermore, it only covers outlives requirements, and not other sorts of well-formedness rules (e.g., trait requirements like T: Eq). Therefore, after inference completes, we still check that each type is well-formed just as today, but with the inferred outlives requirements in scope.

Example 1: A reference

The simplest example is one where we have a reference type directly contained in the struct:

struct Foo<'a, T> {
  bar: &'a [T]

Here, the reference type requires that [T]: 'a which in turn is true if T: 'a. Hence we will create a single constraint, that (T: 'a) in A[Foo].

Example 2: Projections

In some cases, the outlives requirements are not of the form T: 'a, as in this example:

struct Foo<'a, T: Iterator> {
  bar: &'a T::Item

Here, the requirement will be that <T as Iterator>::Item: 'a.

Example 3: Explicit where-clauses

In some cases, we may have constraints that arise from explicit where-clauses and not from field types, as in the following example:

struct Foo<'b, U> {
  bar: Bar<'b, U>

struct Bar<'a, T> where T: 'a {
  x: &'a (),
  y: T

Here, Bar is declared with the where clause that T: 'a. This results in the requirement that (T: 'a) in A[Bar]. Foo, meanwhile, requires that any outlives requirements for Bar<'b, U> are satisfied, and hence as the rule that ('a => 'b, T => U) (A[Bar]) <= A[Foo]. The minimal solution to this is:

  • A[Foo] = (U: 'b)
  • A[Bar] = (T: 'a)

This means that we would infer an implicit outlives requirements of U: 'b for Foo; for Bar we would infer T: 'a but that was explicitly declared.

Example 4: Normalization or lack thereof

Let us revisit the case where the where-clause is due to an impl:

trait MakeRef<'a> {
  type Type;

impl<'a, T> MakeRef<'a> for Vec<T>
  where T: 'a
  type Type = &'a T;

struct Foo<'a, T> { // Results in an error
  foo: <Vec<T> as MakeRef<'a>::Type

Here, for the struct Foo<'a, T>, we will in fact create no constraints for its where-clause set, and hence we will infer an empty set. This is because we encounter the field type <Vec<T> as MakeRef<'a>>::Type, and in such a case we ignore the trait reference itself and just require that Vec<T> is well-formed, which does not result in any outlives requirements as it contains no references.

Now, when we go to check the full well-formedness rules for Foo, we will get an error – this is because, in that context, we will try to normalize the associated type reference, but we will fail in doing so because we do not have any where-clause stating that T: 'a (which the impl requires).

Example 5: Multiple regions

Sometimes the outlives relationship can be inferred between multiple regions, not only type parameters. Consider the following:

struct Foo<'a,'b,T> {
    x: &'a &'b T

Here the WF rules for the type &'a &'b T require that both:

  • 'b: 'a holds, because of the outer reference; and,
  • T: 'b holds, because of the inner reference.


The primary drawbacks were covered in depth in the guide-level explanation, which also covers why they are not considered to be major problems:

  • Long-range errors
    • can be readily mitigated by better explanations
  • Removing fields can affect semver compatibility
    • considered unlikely to occur frequently in practice
    • already true that changing field types can affect semver compatibility
    • semver-like tool could help to mitigate

Rationale and Alternatives

Naturally, we might choose to retain the status quo, and continue to require outlives annotations on structs. Assuming however that we wish to remove them, the primary alternative is to consider going farther than this RFC in various ways.

We might make try to infer outlives requirements for impls as well, and thus eliminate the final place where T: 'a requirements are needed. However, this would introduce complications in the implementation – in order to propagate requirements from impls to structs, we must be able to do associated type normalization and hence trait solving, but we would have to do before we know the full WF requirements for each struct. The current setup avoids this complication.

Unresolved questions