Allow the use of panic!, assert! and assert_eq! within constants and report their evaluation as a compile-time error.


It can often be desirable to terminate a constant evaluation due to invalid arguments. Currently there’s no way to do this other than to use Result to produce an Err in case of errors. Unfortunately this will end up as a runtime problem and not abort compilation, even though the problem has been detected at compile-time. There are already ways to abort compilation, e.g. by invoking ["some assert failed"][42] within a constant, which will abort with a compile-time error pointing at the span of the index operation. But this hack is not very convenient to use and produces the wrong error message.

Guide-level explanation

You can now use panic! and assert! within const fns. This means that when the const fn is invoked at runtime, you will get a regular panic, but if it is invoked at compile-time, the panic message will show up as an error message.

As an example, imagine a function that converts strings to their corresponding booleans.

const fn parse_bool(s: &str) -> bool {
    match s {
        "true" => true,
        "false" => false,
        other => panic!("`{}` is not a valid bool", other),

will produce an error with your custom error message:

error[E0080]: `foo` is not a valid bool
 --> src/ 5:25
5 |        other => panic!("`{}` is not a valid bool", other),
  |                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
note: during the evaluation of
10 | parse_bool("foo");
   | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Reference-level explanation

MIR interpretation gets a special case for the panic machinery (which isn’t const fn). If the panic lang item is entered, instead of producing an error about it not being const fn, we produce a specialized error with the panic’s message. This panic reporting machinery is already present in the mir interpreter, but needs the lang item detection in order to work.

Note that this internal machinery is inherently unstable and thus never invoked directly by users. Users will use the panic! macro as an entry point. The internal details of the panic handling might change in the future, but always in a way that will keep allowing MIR interpretation to evaluate it. All future changes will have to address this directly and regression tests should ensure that we never break the const evaluability.


We have to implement some magic around processing fmt::Arguments objects and producing the panic message from that.

Rationale and alternatives

  • We could add a special constant error reporting mechanism. This has the disadvantage of widening the gap between const eval and runtime execution.
  • We could make String and formatting const enough to allow the panic formatting machinery to be interpreted and made const fn
  • Don’t produce a good error message, just say “const eval encountered an error” and point the user to the panic location. This already works out of the box right now. We can improve the error message in the future with the String + formatting alternative. This is the most minimalistic alternative to this RFC

Unresolved questions

  • Should there be some additional message in the error about this being a panic turned error? Or do we just produce the exact message the panic would produce?

  • This change becomes really useful if Result::unwrap and Option::unwrap become const fn, doing both in one go might be a good idea