Summary

Add an intrinsic (fn align_offset(ptr: *const (), align: usize) -> usize) which returns the number of bytes that need to be skipped in order to correctly align the pointer ptr to align.

The intrinsic is reexported as a method on *const T and *mut T.

Also add an unsafe fn align_to<U>(&self) -> (&[T], &[U], &[T]) method to [T]. The method simplifies the common use case, returning the unaligned prefix, the aligned center part and the unaligned trailing elements. The function is unsafe because it produces a &U to the memory location of a T, which might expose padding bytes or violate invariants of T or U.

Motivation

The standard library (and most likely many crates) use code like


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let is_aligned = (ptr as usize) & ((1 << (align - 1)) - 1) == 0;
let is_2_word_aligned = ((ptr as usize + index) & (usize_bytes - 1)) == 0;
let is_t_aligned = ((ptr as usize) % std::mem::align_of::<T>()) == 0;
#}

to check whether a pointer is aligned in order to perform optimizations like reading multiple bytes at once. Not only is this code which is easy to get wrong, and which is hard to read (and thus increasing the chance of future breakage) but it also makes it impossible for miri to evaluate such statements. This means that miri cannot do utf8-checking, since that code contains such optimizations. Without utf8-checking, Rustc's future const evaluation would not be able to convert a [u8] into a str.

Detailed design

supporting intrinsic

Add a new intrinsic


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn align_offset(ptr: *const (), align: usize) -> usize;
#}

which takes an arbitrary pointer it never reads from and a desired alignment and returns the number of bytes that the pointer needs to be offset in order to make it aligned to the desired alignment. It is perfectly valid for an implementation to always yield usize::max_value() to signal that the pointer cannot be aligned. Since the caller needs to check whether the returned offset would be in-bounds of the allocation that the pointer points into, returning usize::max_value() will never be in-bounds of the allocation and therefor the caller cannot act upon the returned offset.

It might be expected that the maximum offset returned is align - 1, but as the motivation of the rfc states, miri cannot guarantee that a pointer can be aligned irrelevant of the operations done on it.

Most implementations will expand this intrinsic to


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn align_offset(ptr: *const (), align: usize) -> usize {
    let offset = ptr as usize % align;
    if offset == 0 {
        0
    } else {
        align - offset
    }
}
#}

The align parameter must be a power of two and smaller than 2^32. Usually one should pass in the result of an align_of call.

standard library functions

Add a new method align_offset to *const T and *mut T, which forwards to the align_offset intrinsic.

Add two new methods align_to and align_to_mut to the slice type.


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
impl<T> [T] {
    /* ... other methods ... */
    unsafe fn align_to<U>(&self) -> (&[T], &[U], &[T]) { /**/ }
    unsafe fn align_to_mut<U>(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [U], &mut [T]) { /**/ }
}
#}

align_to can be implemented as


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
unsafe fn align_to<U>(&self) -> (&[T], &[U], &[T]) {
    use core::mem::{size_of, align_of};
    assert!(size_of::<U>() != 0 && size_of::<T>() != 0, "don't use `align_to` with zsts");
    if size_of::<U>() % size_of::<T>() == 0 {
        let align = align_of::<U>();
        let size = size_of::<U>();
        let source_size = size_of::<T>();
        // number of bytes that need to be skipped until the pointer is aligned
        let offset = self.as_ptr().align_offset(align);
        // if `align_of::<U>() <= align_of::<T>()`, or if pointer is accidentally aligned, then `offset == 0`
        //
        // due to `size_of::<U>() % size_of::<T>() == 0`,
        // the fact that `size_of::<T>() > align_of::<T>()`,
        // and the fact that `align_of::<U>() > align_of::<T>()` if `offset != 0` we know
        // that `offset % source_size == 0`
        let head_count = offset / source_size;
        let split_position = core::cmp::max(self.len(), head_count);
        let (head, tail) = self.split_at(split_position);
        // might be zero if not enough elements
        let mid_count = tail.len() * source_size / size;
        let mid = core::slice::from_raw_parts::<U>(tail.as_ptr() as *const _, mid_count);
        let tail = &tail[mid_count * size_of::<U>()..];
        (head, mid, tail)
    } else {
        // can't properly fit a U into a sequence of `T`
        // FIXME: use GCD(size_of::<U>(), size_of::<T>()) as minimum `mid` size
        (self, &[], &[])
    }
}
#}

on all current platforms. align_to_mut is expanded accordingly.

Users of the functions must process all the returned slices and cannot rely on any behaviour except that the &[U]'s elements are correctly aligned and that all bytes of the original slice are present in the resulting three slices.

How We Teach This

By example

On most platforms alignment is a well known concept independent of Rust. Currently unsafe Rust code doing alignment checks needs to reproduce the known patterns from C, which are hard to read and prone to errors when modified later.

Thus, whenever pointers need to be manually aligned, the developer is given a choice:

  1. In the case where processing the initial unaligned bits might abort the entire process, use align_offset
  2. If it is likely that all bytes are going to get processed, use align_to
    • align_to has a slight overhead for creating the slices in case not all slices are used

Example 1 (pointers)

The standard library uses an alignment optimization for quickly skipping over ascii code during utf8 checking a byte slice. The current code looks as follows:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// Ascii case, try to skip forward quickly.
// When the pointer is aligned, read 2 words of data per iteration
// until we find a word containing a non-ascii byte.
let ptr = v.as_ptr();
let align = (ptr as usize + index) & (usize_bytes - 1);

#}

With the align_offset method the code can be changed to


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let ptr = v.as_ptr();
let align = unsafe {
    // the offset is safe, because `index` is guaranteed inbounds
    ptr.offset(index).align_offset(usize_bytes)
};
#}

Example 2 (slices)

The memchr impl in the standard library explicitly uses the three phases of the align_to functions:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// Split `text` in three parts
// - unaligned initial part, before the first word aligned address in text
// - body, scan by 2 words at a time
// - the last remaining part, < 2 word size
let len = text.len();
let ptr = text.as_ptr();
let usize_bytes = mem::size_of::<usize>();

// search up to an aligned boundary
let align = (ptr as usize) & (usize_bytes- 1);
let mut offset;
if align > 0 {
    offset = cmp::min(usize_bytes - align, len);
    if let Some(index) = text[..offset].iter().position(|elt| *elt == x) {
        return Some(index);
    }
} else {
    offset = 0;
}

// search the body of the text
let repeated_x = repeat_byte(x);

if len >= 2 * usize_bytes {
    while offset <= len - 2 * usize_bytes {
        unsafe {
            let u = *(ptr.offset(offset as isize) as *const usize);
            let v = *(ptr.offset((offset + usize_bytes) as isize) as *const usize);

            // break if there is a matching byte
            let zu = contains_zero_byte(u ^ repeated_x);
            let zv = contains_zero_byte(v ^ repeated_x);
            if zu || zv {
                break;
            }
        }
        offset += usize_bytes * 2;
    }
}

// find the byte after the point the body loop stopped
text[offset..].iter().position(|elt| *elt == x).map(|i| offset + i)
#}

With the align_to function this could be written as


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// Split `text` in three parts
// - unaligned initial part, before the first word aligned address in text
// - body, scan by 2 words at a time
// - the last remaining part, < 2 word size
let len = text.len();
let ptr = text.as_ptr();

let (head, mid, tail) = text.align_to::<(usize, usize)>();

// search up to an aligned boundary
if let Some(index) = head.iter().position(|elt| *elt == x) {
    return Some(index);
}

// search the body of the text
let repeated_x = repeat_byte(x);

let position = mid.iter().position(|two| {
    // break if there is a matching byte
    let zu = contains_zero_byte(two.0 ^ repeated_x);
    let zv = contains_zero_byte(two.1 ^ repeated_x);
    zu || zv
});

if let Some(index) = position {
    let offset = index * two_word_bytes + head.len();
    return text[offset..].iter().position(|elt| *elt == x).map(|i| offset + i)
}

// find the byte in the trailing unaligned part
tail.iter().position(|elt| *elt == x).map(|i| head.len() + mid.len() + i)
#}

Documentation

A lint could be added to clippy which detects hand-written alignment checks and suggests to use the align_to function instead.

The std::mem::align function's documentation should point to [T]::align_to in order to increase the visibility of the function. The documentation of std::mem::align should note that it is unidiomatic to manually align pointers, since that might not be supported on all platforms and is prone to implementation errors.

Drawbacks

None known to the author.

Alternatives

Duplicate functions without optimizations for miri

Miri could intercept calls to functions known to do alignment checks on pointers and roll its own implementation for them. This doesn't scale well and is prone to errors due to code duplication.

Unresolved questions

  • produce a lint in case sizeof<T>() % sizeof<U>() != 0 and in case the expansion is not part of a monomorphisation, since in that case align_to is statically known to never be effective