Enable "nested method calls" where the outer call is an &mut self borrow, such as vec.push(vec.len()) (where vec: Vec<usize>). This is done by extending MIR with the concept of a two-phase borrow; in this model, select &mut borrows are modified so that they begin with a "reservation" phase and can later be "activated" into a full mutable borrow. During the reservation phase, reads and shared borrows of the borrowed data are permitted (but not mutation), as long as they are confined to the reservation period. Once the mutable borrow is activated, it acts like an ordinary mutable borrow.

Two-phase borrows in this RFC are only used when desugaring method calls; this is intended as a conservative step. In the future, if desired, the scheme could be extended to other syntactic forms, or else subsumed as part of non-lexical lifetimes or some other generalization of the lifetime system.


The overriding goal here is that we want to accept nested method calls where the outer call is an &mut self method, like vec.push(vec.len()). This is a common limitation that beginners stumble over and find confusing and which experienced users have as a persistent annoyance. This makes it a natural target to eliminate as part of the 2017 Roadmap.

This problem has been extensively discussed on the internals discussion board (e.g., 1, 2), and a number of different approaches to solving it have been proposed. This RFC itself is intended to represent a "maximally minimal" approach, in the sense that it tries to avoid making larger changes to the set of Rust code that will be accepted, and instead focuses precisely on the method-call form. It is compatible with the various alternatives, and tries to leave room for future expansion in a variety of directions. See the Alternatives section for more details.

Why do we get an error in the first place?

You may wonder why this code isn't accepted in the first place. To see why, consider what the (somewhat simplified) resulting MIR looks like:


This MIR is mildly simplified; the real MIR has multiple basic blocks to account for the possibility of panics.

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
/* 0 */ tmp0 = &'a mut vec;    // <-- mutable borrow starts here
/* 1 */ tmp1 = &'b vec;        // <-- shared borrow overlaps here
/* 2 */ tmp2 = Vec::len(tmp1);
/* 3 */ EndRegion('b);         // <-- shared borrow ends here
/* 3 */ Vec::push(tmp0, tmp2);
/* 5 */ EndRegion('a);         // <-- mutable borrow ends here

As you can see, we first take a mutable reference to vec for tmp0. This "locks" vec from being accessed in any other way until after the call to Vec::push(), but then we try to access it again when calling vec.len(). Hence the error.

(In this MIR, I've included the EndRegion annotations that the current MIR borrowck relies on. In most examples, I will elide them unless they are needed to make a point. Also, in the future, when we move to NLL, those statements will not be present, and regions will be inferred based solely on where the references are used, but the general idea remains the same.)

When you see the code desugared in that way, it should not surprise you that there is in fact a real danger here for code to crash if we just "turned off" this check (if we even could do such a thing). For example, consider this rather artificial Rust program:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let mut v: Vec<String> = vec![format!("Hello, ")];
let s: String = format!("foo");
v[0].push_str({ v.push(s); "World!" });
//              ^^^^^^^^^ sneaky attempt to mutate `v`

This last line, if desugared into MIR, looks something like this;

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// First evaluate `v[0]` to get a `&mut String`:
tmp0 = &mut v;
tmp1 = IndexMut::index_mut(tmp0, 0);
tmp2 = tmp1;

// Next, evaluate `{ v.push(s); "World!" }` block:
tmp3 = &mut v;
tmp4 = s;
Vec::push(tmp3, tmp4);
tmp5 = "World!";

// Finally, invoke `push_str`:
String::push_str(tmp2, tmp5);

The danger here lies in the fact that we evaluate v[0] into a reference first, but this reference could well be invalidated by the call to Vec::push() that occurs later on (which may resize the vector and hence change the address of its elements). The Rust type system naturally prevents this, however, because the first line (tmp0 = &mut v) borrows v, and that borrow lasts until the final call to push_str().

In fact, even when the receiver is just a local variable (e.g., vec.push(vec.len())) we have to be wary. We wouldn't want it to be possible to give ownership of the receiver away in one of the arguments: vec.push({ send_to_another_thread(vec); ... }). That should still be an error of course.

(Naturally, these complex arguments that are blocks look really artificial, but keep in mind that most of the time when this occurs in practice, the argument is a method or fn call, and that could in principle have arbitrary side-effects.)

Introducing reservations

This RFC proposes extending MIR with the concept of a two-phase borrow. These borrows are a variant of mutable borrows where the value starts out as reserved and only becomes mutably borrowed when the resulting reference is first used (which is called activating the borrow). During the reservation phase before a mutable borrow is activated, it acts exactly like a shared borrow -- hence the borrowed value can still be read.

As discussed earlier, this RFC itself only introduces these two-phase borrows in a limited way. Specifically, we extend the MIR with a new kind of borrow (written mut2, for two-phase), and we generate those new kinds of borrows when lowering method calls.

To understand how two-phased borrows help, let's revisit our two examples. We'll start with the motivating example, vec.push(vec.len()). When this expression is desugared, the resulting reference is stored into a temporary, tmp0. Therefore, until tmp0 is referenced again, vec is only considered reserved:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
/* 0 */ tmp0 = &mut2 vec;       // reservation of `vec` starts here
/* 1 */ tmp1 = &vec;
/* 2 */ tmp2 = Vec::len(tmp1);
/* 3 */ Vec::push(tmp0, tmp2); // first use of `tmp0`, upgrade is here

The first use of tmp0 is on line 3, and hence the mutable borrow begins then, and lasts until the end of the borrow region. Crucially, lines 1 and 2 (which did a shared borrow of vec) took place during the reservation period, and hence no error results. This is because a reservation is equivalent to a shared borrow, and multiple shared borrows are allowed.

Next, let's consider the sneaky example, where the argument attempts to mutate the vector that is being used in the receiver:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let mut v: Vec<String> = vec![format!("Hello, ")];
let s: String = format!("foo");
v[0].push_str({ v.push(s); "World!" });
//              ^^^^^^^^^ sneaky attempt to mutate `v`

In this case, if we examine the resulting MIR, we can see that the borrow of v is almost immediately used, as part of the IndexMut operation:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// First evaluate `v[0]` to get a `&mut String`:
tmp0 = &mut2 v;
tmp1 = IndexMut::index_mut(tmp0, 0); // tmp0 used here!
tmp2 = tmp1;

// Next, evaluate `{ v.push(s); "World!" }` block:
tmp3 = &mut2 v; // <-- Error! mutable borrow of `v` is active.
... // see above

This implies that the mutable borrow will be active later on, when v is borrowed again during the arguments, and hence an error is still reported.

Note that this same treatment will also rule out some "harmless" examples, such as this one:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
v[0].push_str(&format!("{}", v.len()));

This might seem analogous to example 1, but in this case the mutable borrow of v is "activated" by the indexing, and hence v is considered mutably borrowed when v.len() is called, not reserved, which results in an error.

Detailed design

New MIR form for two-phase borrows

Currently, the MIR rvalue for borrows has one of three forms (these are internal syntax only, naturally, since MIR doesn't have a defined written representation)

&'a <lvalue>
&'a mut <lvalue>
&'a unique <lvalue>

In either case, the rvalue returns a reference with lvalue 'a that refers to the address of lvalue (an lvalue is a path that leads to memory). This can be either a shared, mutable, or unique reference (unique references are an internal concept that appears only in MIR; they are used when desugaring closures, but there is no direct equivalent in Rust surface syntax).

This RFC proposes adding a third form: &'a mut2 <lvalue>. Like &unique borrows, this would be used by the compiler when desugaring and would not have a direct user representation for the time being. For most purposes, an &mut2 borrow would act precisely the same as an &mut borrow; the borrow checker however would treat it differently, as described below.

When are two-phase borrows used

Two-phase borrows would be used in the specific case of desugaring a call to an &mut self method. Currently, in the initially generated MIR, calls to such methods always have a "auto-mut-ref" inserted (this is because vec.push(), where vec: &mut Vec<i32>, is considered a borrow of vec, not a move). This "auto-mut-ref" will be changed from an &mut to an &mut2.

Integrating reserved borrows into the borrow checker

Existing MIR borrowck algorithm

The proposed fix for this problem is described in terms of a MIR-based borrowck (which is coming soon). The basic structure of the existing borrow checker, transposed onto MIR, is as follows:

  • Every borrow in MIR always has the same form:
    • lv1 = &'r lv2 or lv1 = &'r mut lv2, where:
      • lv1 and lv2 are MIR lvalues (path naming a memory location)
      • 'r is the duration of the borrow
  • Let each borrow be named by its position P, which has the form BB/n, where BB is the basic block containing the borrow statement and n is the index within that basic block.
  • The borrow at position P is then considered live for all points reachable from P without passing through the end of the region 'r.
    • The full set of borrows live at a given point can be readily computed using a standard data-flow analysis.
  • For each write to an lvalue lv_w at point P:
    • A write is either a mutable borrow &mut lv_w or an assignment lv_w = ...
    • It is an error if there is any borrow (mutable or shared) of some path lv_b that is live at P where lv_b may overlap lv_w
  • For each read from an lvalue lv_r at point P:
    • A read is any use of lv_r as an operand.
    • It is an error if there is any mutable borrow of some path lv_b that is live at P where lv_b may overlap lv_r

Proposed change

When the borrow checker encounters a mut2 borrow, it will handle it in a slightly different way. Because of the limited places where mut2 borrows are generated, we know that they will only ever be encountered in a statement that assigns them to a MIR temporary:

tmp = &'r mut2 lv

In that case, the path lv would initially be considered reserved. The temporary tmp will only be used once, as an argument to the actual call: at that point, the path lv will be considered mutably borrowed.

In terms of the safety checks, reservations act just as a shared borrow does. Therefore, a write to lv at point P is illegal if there is any active borrow or in-scope reservation of lv at the point P. Similarly, a read from lv at point P is legal if there exists a reservation (but not with a mutable borrow).

There is one new check required. At the point Q where a mutable borrow is activated, we must check that there are no active borrows or reservations in scope (other than the reservation being upgraded). Otherwise, a test such as this might pass:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn foo<'a>(x: &'a Vec<i32>) -> &'a i32 { &x[0] }

let mut v = vec![0, 1, 2];
let p;
v.push({p = foo(&v); 3});

When desugared into MIR, this would look something like:

tmp0 = &'a mut2 v;   // reservation begins
tmp1 = &'b v;       // shared borrow begins; allowed, because `v` is reserved
p = foo(tmp1);
Vec::push(tmp0, 3); // mutable borrow activated
EndRegion('a);      // mutable borrow ends
tmp2 = *p;          // shared borrow still valid!

Note that, here, we created a borrow of v[0] before we called Vec::push(), and we continue to use it afterwards. This should not be accepted, but it could be without this additional check at the activation point. In particular, at the time that the shared borrow starts, v is reserved; the mutable borrow of v is activated later, but still within the scope of the shared borrow. (In today's borrow checker, this cannot happen, so we only check at the start of a borrow whether other borrows are in scope.)

How We Teach This

For the most part, because this change is so targeted, it seems that discussion of how it works is out of scope for introductory texts such as The Rust Programming Language or Rust By Example. In particular, the idea simply makes code that seems intuitively like it should work (e.g., vec.push(vec.len())) work.

However, there are a few related topics which likely might make sense to cover at some point in works like this:

  • People will likely first encounter surprises when they attempt more complicated method calls that are not covered by this proposal, such as the v[0].push_str(&format!("{}", v.len())); example. In that case, a simple desugaring can be used to show why the compiler rejects this code -- in particular, a comparison with the errorneous examples may be helpful. A keen observer may note the contrast with vec.push(vec.len()), but such an observer can be referred to the reference. =)

  • One interesting point that came up in discussing this example is that many people expect that vec.push(vec.len()) would be desugared as follows:

    let tmp = vec.len();

    In particular, note that vec, in this desugaring, is not assigned to a temporary. This is in fact not how the language works (as discussed in more detail under the Alternatives section); instead, vec is treated like any other argument. It is evaluated to a temporary, and autorefs etc are applied. It may be worth covering this sort of example when doing an in-depth explanation of how method desugaring works.

Coverage of these rules seems most appropriate for the Rust reference, as part of detailed general coverage on how MIR desugaring and the borrow checker work. At the moment, no such coverage exists, but this would be a logical part of it. In that context, explaining it in a similar fashion to how the RFC presents the change seems appropriate.


The obvious downside of this proposal is that it is narrowly targeted at the method call form. This means that "manual desugarings" of method calls will not necessarily work, particularly if the user faithfully follows what the compiler does. There are a number of reasons to think this will be not be a very big deal in practice:

  • There is rarely a desire to do manual desugaring of method calls anyway.
  • In practice, when a desugaring is needed, people have a lot of latitude to adjust the ordering of statements and so forth, and hence they can achieve the effect that they need (in fact, every time that you are forced to rewrite an instance of the vec.push(vec.len()) pattern to save vec.len() into a temporary, you are doing a partial desugaring of this kind).
  • Truly faithful desugarings are rare in any case. As discussed in the How We Teach This section, many people overlook the role of autoref and the precise evaluation order. Fewer still will get the precise lifetime of temporaries correctly or other details. This is not a big deal.

Nonetheless, this change slightly widens the gap between the surface language and the underlying "desugared" view that MIR takes, and in general that is to be avoided. The Alternatives section discuses some possible future extensions that could be used to remove that gap.


As discussed earlier, a number of major alternative designs have been put forward to address nested method calls. This proposal is intended to be forwards compatible with all of them, but to adopt none of them in particular. We cover now each alternative and explain why we did not want to adopt it in this RFC.

Modifying the desugaring to evaluate receiver after arguments

One option is to modify the desugaring for method calls. Currently, a call like is always desugared into something like:

  • process a and apply any autoref etc, resulting in tmp0
  • evaluate b..z to a temporary, resulting in tmp1..tmpN
  • invoke foo(tmp0..tmpN)

However, we could say that, under some set of circumstances, we will evaluate a later:

  • evaluate b..z to a temporary, resulting in tmp1..tmpN
  • process a and apply any autoref etc, resulting in tmp0
  • invoke foo(tmp0..tmpN)

Due to backwards compatibility constraints, there are some limits to how often we could do this reordering. For example, we clearly cannot change the desugaring of complex, side-effecting expressions like a().foo(b()). In fact, even simple expressions like might be a breaking change, if the method is declared as fn(self) (play link):

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
trait Foo {
  fn foo(self, a: ()) -> Self;

impl Foo for i32 {
  fn foo(self, a: ()) -> Self {

let mut a = 3;
let b ={ a += 1; () }); // returns 3

In effect, the goal would be to come up with some rules that limit the cases under consideration to cases that would currently result in an error. One proposed set of rules might be:

  • the invoked method foo() is an &mut self method
  • the receiver is simply a reference to a local variable a

This would cause, for example, vec.push(vec.len()) to use the new ordering, and hence to be accepted. However, v[0].push(...) would not use the new ordering.

This option strikes many as being simpler than the one proposed here. It is perhaps simpler to explain, especially, since it doesn't introduce any new concepts -- the borrow checker works as it ever did, and we already have to do desugaring somehow, we're just doing it differently in this case. And in particular we're only affecting cases where autoref -- a non-trivial desugaring -- applies.

However, this option can also result in some surprises of its own. For example, consider a twist on the previous example, where the method foo is declared as &mut self instead:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
trait Foo {
  fn foo(&mut self, a: ()) -> Self;

impl Foo for i32 {
  fn foo(&mut self, a: ()) -> Self {

let mut a = &mut 3;
let b ={ a = &mut 4; () }); // returns 4

Currently, this code will not compile. Under the proposal, however, it would compile, because (1) the method is &mut self and (2) the receiver is a simple variable reference a. Interestingly, now that we changed the method to &mut self, we can suddenly see the side-effects of evaluating the argument.

On balance, it seems better to this author to have the borrow checker analysis be more complex than the desugaring and execution order.

Permit more things during the "restricted" period

The current notion of a 'restricted' borrow is identical to a shared borrow. However, we could in principle permit more things during the restricted period -- basically we could permit anything that does not invalidate the reference we created. In that case, we might fruitfully enable two-phased borrows for shared references as well. In practice, this means that we could permit writes to the borrowed content (which are forbidden by this proposal). An example of code that would work as a result is the following:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// pretend you could define an inherent method on integers
// for a second, just to keep code snippet simple
impl i32 {
    fn increment(&mut self, v: i32) -> i32 {
        *self += v;
        *self // returns new value
fn foo() {
    let mut x = 0;
    let y = x.increment(x.increment(1)); // what result do you expect from this?
    println!("{}", y);

The call to x.increment(x.increment(1)) would thus desugar to the following MIR:

tmp0 = &mut2 x;
tmp1 = &mut2 x;
tmp2 = 1;
tmp3 = i32::increment(tmp1, tmp2); // activates tmp1
i32::increment(tmp0, tmp3); // activates tmp0

Under the existing proposal, this is illegal, because x is considered "reserved" when tmp1 is created, and an &mut2 borrow is not permitted when the lvalue being borrowed has been reserved. If we made restrictions more permissive, we might accept this code; it would output 2.

We opted against this variation for several reasons:

  • It makes the borrow checker more complex by introducing not only two-phase borrows, but a new set of restrictions that must be worked out in detail. The current RFC leverages the existing category of shared borrows.
  • The main gain here is the ability to intersperse two mutable calls (as in the example), or to have an outer shared borrow with an inner mutable borrow. In general, this implies that there is some careful ordering of mutation going on here: in particular, the outer method call will observe the state changes made by the inner calls. This feels like a case where it is helpful to have the user pull the two calls apart, so that their relative side-effects are clearly visible.

Of course, it would be possible to loosen the rules in the future.

A broader user of two-phase borrows

The initial proposal for two-phased borrows (made in [this blog post][]) was more expansive. In particular, it aimed to convert all mutable borrows into two-phase borrows at the MIR level. Given the way that MIR is generated, this meant that users would be able to observe these two phases in some cases. For example, the following code would have type-checked, whereas it would not today or under this RFC:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let tmp0 = &mut vec;   // `vec` is reserved
let tmp1 = vec.len();  // shared borrow of vec; ok
Vec::push(tmp0, tmp1); // mutable borrow of `vec` is activated

The aim here was specifically to support the desugared form of a method call.

The current RFC backs down from this more aggressive posture. Treating all mutable borrows as potentially deferred would make them something that everyday users would encounter, and we didn't feel satisfied with the "mental model" that resulted. In particular, because of how MIR is generated, deferred borrows would be almost immediately activated in most scenarios. They would only work when a borrow was immediately assigned into a variable as part of a let declaration. This means, for example, that these two bits of code would have been treated differently:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let x = &mut vec; // reserved

// versus:

let x;
x = &mut vec; // immediately activated

The reason for this distinction cannot be explained except by examining the desugarings into MIR; if you do so, you will see that the second case introduces an intermediate temporary:

tmp0 = &mut vec; // reservation starts
x = tmp0; // borrow is activated

The root of the problem is that the current RFC is proposing an analysis that is not done on types but rather on MIR variables and points in the control-flow graph. This means that (for example) whether a borrow is activated is affected by "no-ops" like let x = y (which would be considered a use of y).

Therefore, introducing two-phased borrows outside of method-call desugaring form doesn't feel like the right approach. (But, if they are limited to method-call desugaring, as ths RFC proposes, then they are a simple and effective mechanism without broader impact.)

Borrowing for the future

One of the initial proposals for how to think about nested method calls was in terms of "borrowing for the future". Currently, whenever you have a borrow, the resulting reference is "immediately usable". That is, the lifetime of the reference must include the point of the borrow. Borrowing for the future proposes to loosen that rule, allowing a borrow to result in a reference that can't be immediately used, but can only be used at some future point. In the meantime, the path that was borrowed must be considered to be reserved (in roughly the same sense as this RFC uses it), in order to ensure that the reference is not invalidated.

To see how this might work, consider the naively desugared version of vec.push(vec.len()), but with explicit labels for the lifetime of every little part (and also for the lifetime of a borrow):

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
'call: {
 let v: &'invoke mut Vec<usize>;
 let l: usize;
 'eval_args: {
   'eval_v: { v = &'eval_l vec; }
   'eval_l: { l = Vec::len(v); }
 'invoke: { Vec::push(v, l); }

Here you can see that the borrow v = &'invoke mut vec is borrowing vec for a lifetime ('invoke) that has not yet started -- but which will start in the future. This is basically saying, "make a reference that we will give to this function, but we won't use in the meantime".

Since the reference v is not in active use yet, we can use looser restrictions. We still need to consider the path vec to be "reserved", so that v doesn't get evaluated. The idea is that we are evaluating the path to a pointer right then and there, so we need to be sure that this pointer remains valid. We wouldn't want people to send vec to another thread or something.

It seems plausible that these rules could be integrated into the notion of non-lexical lifetimes. At present, the non-lexical lifetimes proposal still includes the rule that borrows must be immediately active (in particular, at each point P where a variable is live, all of the regions in its type must include P). But this could be changed to a rule that says that the regions must either include P or be a future region of the kind shown here. Clearly, the details will need to be worked out, but this would then present a more cohesive model that we could teach to users (in short, when you make a reference, the span of the code where the reference is in active use is restricted, and the code leading up to that span treats the value as having been shared).


In the internals thread, arielb1 had [an interesting proposal][ref2] that they called "two-phase lifetimes". The goal was precisely to take the "two-phase" concept but incorporate it into lifetime inference, rather than handling it in borrow checking as I present here. The idea was to define a type RefMut<'r, 'w, T> (original Ref2Φ<'immut, 'mutbl, T>) which stands in for a kind of "richer" &mut type (originally, &T was unified as well, but that introduces complications because &T types are Copy, so I'm leaving that out). In particular, RefMut has two lifetimes, not just one:

  • 'r is the "read" lifetime. It includes every point where the reference may later be used.
  • 'w is a subset of 'r (that is, 'r: 'w) which indicates the "write" lifetime. This includes those points where the reference is actively being written.

We can then conservatively translate a &'a mut T type into RefMut<'a, 'a, T> -- that is, we can use 'a for both of the two lifetimes. This is what we would do for any &mut type that appears in a struct declaration or fn interface. But for &mut T types within a fn body, we can infer the two lifetimes somewhat separately: the 'r lifetime is computed just as I described in my NLL post. But the 'w lifetime only needs to include those points where a write occurs. The borrow check would then guarantee that the 'w regions of every &mut borrow is disjoint from the 'r regions of every other borrow (and from shared borrows).

This proposal has a lot of potential applications, but each of them introduces some complications, and would require singificant further thought. Let's cover them in more detail.

Discontinuous borrows

This proposal accepts more programs than the one I outlined. In particular, it accepts the example with interleaved reads and writes that we saw earlier. Let me give that example again, but annotation the regions more explicitly:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
/* 0 */ let mut i = 0;
/* 1 */ let p: RefMut<{2-5}, {3,5}, i32> = &mut i;
//                    ^^^^^  ^^^^^
//                     'r     'w
/* 2 */ let j = i;  // just in 'r
/* 3 */ *p += 1;    // must be in 'w
/* 4 */ let k = i;  // just in 'r
/* 5 */ *p += 1;    // must be in 'w

As you can see here, we would infer the write region to be just the two points 3 and 5. This is precisely those portions of the CFG where writes are happening -- and not the gaps in between, where reads are permitted.

As you might have surmised, these sorts of "discontinuous" borrows represent a kind of "step up" in the complexity of the system. If it were vital to accept examples with interleaved writes like the previous one, then this wouldn't bother me (NLL also represents such a step, for example, but it seems clearly worth it). But given that the example is artificial and not a pattern I have ever seen arise in "real life", it seems like we should try to avoid growing the underlying complexity of the system if we can.

To see what I mean about a "step up" in complexity, consider how we would integrate this proposal into lifetime inference. The current rules treat all regions equally, but this proposal seems to imply that regions have "roles". For example, the 'r region captures the "liveness" constraints that I described in the original NLL proposal. Meanwhile the 'w region captures "activity".

(Since we would always convert a &'a mut T type into RefMut<'a, 'a, T>, all regions in struct parameters would adopt the more conservative "liveness" role to start. This is good because we wouldn't want to start allowing "holes" in the lifetimes that unsafe code is relying on to prevent access from the outside. It would however be possible for type inference to use a RefMut<'r, 'w ,T> type as the value for a type parameter; I don't yet see a way for that to cause any surprises, but perhaps it can if you consider specialization and other non-parametric features.)

Another example of where this "complexity step" surfaces came from Ralf Jung. As you may know, Ralf is working on a formalization of Rust as part of the RustBelt project (if you're interested, there is video available of a great introduction to this work which Ralf gave at the Rust Paris meetup). In any case, their model is a kind of generalization of Rust, in that it can accept a lot of programs that standard Rust cannot (it is intended to be used for assigning types to unsafe code as well as safe code). The two-phase borrow proposal that I describe here should be able to fit into that system in a fairly straightforward way. But if we adopted discontinuous regions, that would require making Ralf's system more expressive. This is not necessarily an argument against doing it, but it does show that it makes the Rust system qualitatively more complex to reason about.

If all this talk of "steps in complexity" seems abstract, I think that the most immediate way it will surface is when we try to teach. Supporting discontinous borrows just makes it that much harder to craft small examples that show how borrowing works. It will make the system feel more mysterious, since the underlying rules are indeed more complex and thus harder to "intuit" on your own. Getting these details right is a significant design challenge outside the scope of this RFC.

Downgrading mutable to shared

Another goal of the proposal was to (perhaps someday) support the "downgrade-mut-to-shared" pattern, in which a function takes in a mutable reference but returns a shared reference:

# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn get_something(&mut self) -> &T { = ...;

In the case of this function, we do indeed require a mutable borrow of self to start -- since we update -- but once get_something() returns, a simple shared borrow would suffice (as is the case for the pseudo-code above). It is conceivable that such a scenario could be handled by giving &mut self a "write" lifetime that is confined to the call itself, but a bigger "read" lifetime.

However, there are other cases (that exist in active use today) of functions that take an &mut self and return an &T where it would not be safe to treat self as shared after the function returns. For example, one could easily wrap the existing Mutex::get_mut function to have a signature like this; get_mut() works by taking an &mut reference and giving access to the interior of the mutex without locking it. This is only possible because get_mut() can assume that self will remain mutably borrowed until you are done using that data. See this post on the internals thread for more details.

Therefore, it seems that some form of user annotation would be required to enable this pattern. This implies that the two lifetimes of the Ref2 type would have to be exposed to end-users, or other annotations are needed. Just as with discontinuous borrows, designing such a system is a significant design challenge outside the scope of this RFC.

Unresolved questions

None as yet.. R