Change the range operators a..b, a.., and a..=b to resolve to new types std::range::Range, std::range::RangeFrom, and std::range::RangeInclusive in Edition 2024. These new types will not implement Iterator, instead implementing Copy and IntoIterator.


The current iterable range types (Range, RangeFrom, RangeInclusive) implement Iterator directly. This is now widely considered to be a mistake, because it makes implementing Copy for those types hazardous due to how the two traits interact.

for x in it.take(3) {  // a *copy* of the iterator is used here
    // ..

match {  // the original iterator (not advanced) is used here
    // ..

However, there is considerable demand for Copy range types for multiple reasons:

  • ergonomic use without needing explicit .clone()s or rewriting the a..b syntax repeatedly
  • use in Copy types (currently people work around this by using a tuple instead)

Another primary motivation is the extra size of RangeInclusive. It uses an extra bool field to keep track of when the upper bound has been yielded by the iterator, but this extra size is useless when the type is not used as an iterator.

Guide-level explanation

Rust has several different types of “range” syntax, including the following:

  • a..b denotes a range from a (inclusive) to b (exclusive). It resolves to the type std::range::Range. The iterator for Range will yield values from a (inclusive) to b (exclusive) in steps of one.

  • a..=b denotes a range from a (inclusive) to b (inclusive). It resolve to the type std::range::RangeInclusive. The iterator for RangeInclusive will yield values from a (inclusive) to b (inclusive) in steps of one.

  • a.. denotes a range from a (inclusive) with no upper bound. It resolves to the type std::range::RangeFrom. The iterator for RangeFrom will yield values starting with a and increasing in steps of one.

These types implement the IntoIterator trait, enabling their use directly in a for loop:

for n in 0..5 {
    // `n` = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

All range types are Copy when the bounds are Copy, allowing easy reuse:

let range = 0..5;

if a_slice[range].contains(x) {
    // ...
if b_slice[range].contains(y) {
    // ...

For convenience, several commonly-used methods from Iterator are present as inherent functions on the range types:

for n in (1..).map(|x| x * 2) {
    // n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, ...
for n in (0..5).rev() {
    // n = 4, 3, 2, 1, 0

Legacy Range Types

In Rust editions prior to 2024, a..b, a..=b, and a.. resolved to a different set of types (now found in std::range::legacy). These legacy range types did not implement Copy, and implemented Iterator directly (rather than IntoIterator).

This meant that any Iterator method could be called on those range types:

let mut range = 0..5;
assert_eq!(, Some(0));
range.for_each(|n| {
    // n = 1, 2, 3, 4

There exist From impls for converting from the new range types to the legacy range types.


In many cases, no changes need to be made at all. This includes most places where a RangeBounds or IntoIterator is expected:

pub fn takes_range(range: impl std::ops::RangeBounds<usize>) { ... }
takes_range(0..5); // No changes necessary

pub fn takes_iter(range: impl IntoIterator<usize>) { ... }
takes_iter(0..5); // No changes necessary

And most places where Iterator methods were used directly on the range:

for n in (0..5).rev() { ... } // No changes necessary
for n in (0..5).map(|x| x * 2) { ... } // No changes necessary

In other cases, cargo fix --edition will insert .into_iter() as necessary:

pub fn takes_iter(range: impl Iterator<usize>) { ... }
takes_iter((0..5).into_iter()); // Add `.into_iter()`

// Before
// After
(0..5).into_iter().for_each(...); // Add `.into_iter()`

// Before
let mut range = 0..5;
assert_eq!(, Some(0));
range.for_each(|n| {
    // n = 1, 2, 3, 4
// After
let mut range = (0..5).into_iter();
assert_eq!(, Some(0));
range.for_each(|n| {
    // n = 1, 2, 3, 4

Or fall back to converting to the legacy types:

// Before
pub fn takes_range(range: std::ops::Range<usize>) { ... }
// After
pub fn takes_range(range: std::range::legacy::Range<usize>) { ... }

Migrating Libraries

Some libraries have range types in their public interface. To use the new range types with such a library, users will need to add explicit conversions.

To reduce the burden of explicit conversions, libraries should make the following backwards-compatible changes:

  • Change any function parameters from legacy Range* types to impl Into<Range*> Or if applicable, impl RangeBounds<_>
// Before
pub fn takes_range(range: std::ops::Range<usize>) { ... }

// After
pub fn takes_range(range: impl Into<std::range::legacy::Range<usize>>) { ... }
// Or
pub fn takes_range(range: impl std::ops::RangeBounds<usize>) { ... }
pub struct Wrapper<T> {
    range: Range<T>

// Before
impl<T> IntoIterator for Wrapper<T>
where Range<T>: Iterator
    type Item = <Range<T> as Iterator>::Item;
    type IntoIter = Range<T>;

    fn into_iter(self) -> Self::IntoIter {
// After
impl<T> IntoIterator for Wrapper<T>
where Range<T>: IntoIterator
    type Item = <Range<T> as IntoIterator>::Item;
    type IntoIter = <Range<T> as IntoIterator>::IntoIter;

    fn into_iter(self) -> Self::IntoIter {
  • When your library implements a trait involving ranges, such as std::ops::Index, add impls for the new range types
// Before
use std::ops::{Index, Range};
impl Index<Range<usize>> for Bar { ... }

// After
use std::ops::{Index, Range};
impl Index<Range<usize>> for Bar { ... }
impl Index<std::range::Range<usize>> for Bar { ... }


  • These changes to libraries should happen when users of a given library transition to the new edition
  • These changes do not require the library itself to transition to the new edition


There is a substantial amount of educational material in the wild which assumes the the range types implement Iterator. If a user references this outdated material, it is important that compiler errors guide them to the new solution.

error[E0599]: `Range<usize>` is not an iterator
 --> src/
4 |     a.sum()
  |       ^^^ `Range<usize>` is not an iterator
  = note: the Edition 2024 range types implement `IntoIterator`, not `Iterator`
  = help: convert to an iterator first: `a.into_iter().sum()`
  = note: the following trait bounds were not satisfied:
          `Range<usize>: Iterator`

Reference-level explanation

Note: The exact names and module paths in this RFC are for demonstration purposes only, and can be finalized by T-libs-api after the proposal is accepted.

Add replacement types only for the current Range, RangeFrom, and RangeInclusive.

The Range Expressions page in the Reference will change to read as follows

Edition 2024 and later

The .. and ..= operators will construct an object of one of the std::range::Range (or core::range::Range) variants, according to the following table:

RangeExprstart..endstd::range::Rangestart ≤ x < end
RangeFromExprstart..std::range::RangeFromstart ≤ x
RangeToExpr..endstd::range::RangeTox < end
RangeInclusiveExprstart..=endstd::range::RangeInclusivestart ≤ x ≤ end
RangeToInclusiveExpr..=endstd::range::RangeToInclusivex ≤ end

Note: While std::ops::RangeTo, std::ops::RangeFull, and std::ops::RangeToInclusive are re-exports of std::range::RangeTo, std::range::RangeFull, and std::ops::Range::RangeToInclusive respectively, std::ops::Range, std::ops::RangeFrom, and std::ops::RangeInclusive are re-exports of the types under std::range::legacy:: (NOT those directly under std::range::) for backwards-compatibility reasons.


1..2;   // std::range::Range
3..;    // std::range::RangeFrom
..4;    // std::range::RangeTo
..;     // std::range::RangeFull
5..=6;  // std::range::RangeInclusive
..=7;   // std::range::RangeToInclusive

The following expressions are equivalent.

let x = std::range::Range {start: 0, end: 10};
let y = 0..10;

assert_eq!(x, y);

Prior to Edition 2024

The .. and ..= operators will construct an object of one of the std::range::legacy::Range (or core::range::legacy::Range) variants, according to the following table:

RangeExprstart..endstd::range::legacy::Rangestart ≤ x < end
RangeFromExprstart..std::range::legacy::RangeFromstart ≤ x
RangeToExpr..endstd::range::RangeTox < end
RangeInclusiveExprstart..=endstd::range::legacy::RangeInclusivestart ≤ x ≤ end
RangeToInclusiveExpr..=endstd::range::RangeToInclusivex ≤ end

Note: std::ops::Range, std::ops::RangeFrom, and std::ops::RangeInclusive are re-exports of the respective types under std::range::legacy::. std::ops::RangeTo, std::ops::RangeFull, and std::ops::RangeToInclusive are re-exports of the respective types under std::range::.


1..2;   // std::range::legacy::Range
3..;    // std::range::legacy::RangeFrom
..4;    // std::range::RangeTo
..;     // std::range::RangeFull
5..=6;  // std::range::legacy::RangeInclusive
..=7;   // std::range::RangeToInclusive

The following expressions are equivalent.

let x = std::range::legacy::Range {start: 0, end: 10};
let y = std::ops::Range {start: 0, end: 10};
let z = 0..10;

assert_eq!(x, y);
assert_eq!(x, z);

New paths

There is no language support for edition-dependent path resolution, so these types must continue to be accessible under their current paths. However, their canonical paths will change to live under std::range::legacy:

  • std::ops::Range will be a re-export of std::range::legacy::Range
  • std::ops::RangeFrom will be a re-export of std::range::legacy::RangeFrom
  • std::ops::RangeInclusive will be a re-export of std::range::legacy::RangeFrom

In order to not break existing links to the documentation for these types, the re-exports must remain doc(inline).

The replacement types will live under range:

  • std::range::Range will be the Edition 2024 replacement for std::range::legacy::Range
  • std::range::RangeFrom will be the Edition 2024 replacement for std::range::legacy::RangeFrom
  • std::range::RangeInclusive will be the Edition 2024 replacement for std::range::legacy::RangeFrom

The RangeFull, RangeTo, and RangeToInclusive types will remain unchanged. But for consistency, their canonical paths will be changed to live under range:

  • std::ops::RangeFull will be a re-export of std::range::RangeFull
  • std::ops::RangeTo will be a re-export of std::range::RangeTo
  • std::ops::RangeToInclusive will be a re-export of std::range::RangeToInclusive

Iterator types

Because the three new types will implement IntoIterator directly, they need three new respective IntoIter types:

  • std::range::IterRange will be <range::Range<_> as IntoIterator>::IntoIter
  • std::range::IterRangeFrom will be <range::RangeFrom<_> as IntoIterator>::IntoIter
  • std::range::IterRangeInclusive will be <range::RangeInclusive<_> as IntoIterator>::IntoIter

These iterator types will implement the same iterator traits (DoubleEndedIterator, FusedIterator, etc) as the legacy range types, with the following exceptions:

  • std::range::IterRange will not implement ExactSizeIterator for u32 or i32
  • std::range::IterRangeInclusive will not implement ExactSizeIterator for u16 or i16

Those ExactSizeIterator impls on the legacy range types are known to be incorrect.

These iterator types should each feature an associated function for getting the remaining range back:

impl<Idx> IterRange<Idx> {
    pub fn remainder(self) -> Range<Idx>;
impl<Idx> IterRangeFrom<Idx> {
    pub fn remainder(self) -> RangeFrom<Idx>;
impl<Idx> IterRangeInclusive<Idx> {
    // `None` if the iterator was exhausted
    pub fn remainder(self) -> Option<RangeInclusive<Idx>>;

Changed structure and API

std::range::Range and std::range::RangeFrom will have identical structure to the existing types, with public fields for the bounds. However, std::range::RangeInclusive will be changed:

  • start and end will be changed to public fields
  • exhausted field will be removed entirely

This makes the new RangeInclusive the same size as Range.

All three new types will have the same trait implementations as the legacy types, with the following exceptions:

  • NOT implement Iterator
  • implement IntoIterator directly (when Idx: Step)
  • implement Copy (when Idx: Copy)

The following conversions between the new and legacy types will be implemented:

impl<Idx> From<range::Range<Idx>> for range::legacy::Range<Idx>
impl<Idx> From<range::RangeFrom<Idx>> for range::legacy::RangeFrom<Idx>
impl<Idx> From<range::RangeInclusive<Idx>> for range::legacy::RangeInclusive<Idx>

impl<Idx> From<range::legacy::Range<Idx>> for range::Range<Idx>
impl<Idx> From<range::legacy::RangeFrom<Idx>> for range::RangeFrom<Idx>
// Fallible because legacy RangeInclusive can be exhausted
impl<Idx> TryFrom<range::legacy::RangeInclusive<Idx>> for range::RangeInclusive<Idx>

The new types should have inherent methods to match the most common usages of Iterator methods. map and rev are the bare minimum; we leave the exact set to be finalized by T-libs-api after the proposal is accepted.

impl<Idx> Range<Idx> {
    /// Shorthand for `.into_iter().map(...)`
    pub fn map<B, F>(self, f: F) -> iter::Map<<Self as IntoIterator>::IntoIter, F>
        Self: IntoIterator,
        F: FnMut(Idx) -> B,

    /// Shorthand for `.into_iter().rev()`
    pub fn rev(self) -> iter::Rev<<Self as IntoIterator>::IntoIter>
        Self: IntoIterator,
        <Self as IntoIterator>::IntoIter: DoubleEndedIterator,


This change has the potential to cause a significant amount of churn in the ecosystem. There are two main sources of churn:

  • where ranges are assumed to be Iterator
  • trait impls involving ranges, such as Index<legacy::Range<_>>

Changes will be required to support the new range types, even on older editions. See the migrating section for specifics.

Ranges assumed to be Iterator

This is not uncommon in the ecosystem. For instance, both rustc-rayon and quote needed patches for this during experimentation.

impl Index<Range<_>> for X

A Github search for this pattern yields 784 files, almost all of which appear to be true matches. It’s hard to say how many of those are published libraries, but it does indicate that this could have a significant impact.


To mitigate these drawbacks, we recommend introducing and stabilizing an MVP of the new types as soon as possible, well before Edition 2024 releases (even before the implementation of the syntax feature is complete). This will give libraries time to issue updates supporting the new range types.

Some users may depend on libraries that are not updated before Edition 2024. These users do not just have to accept adding explicit conversions to their code. They also have the option to stay on a prior edition.

Rationale and alternatives

Just implement Copy on the types as-is

Copy iterators are a large footgun. It was decided to remove Copy from all iterators back in 2015, and that decision is unlikely to be reversed.

That said, there are a few possibilities:

  • Sophisticated lint to catch when an iterator is problematically copied
  • Language or library feature to allow Copy structs to have certain non-Copy fields
  • Specialize IntoIterator on these range types and lint whenever the Iterator impl is used

None of these approaches would resolve the following serious issues:

  • RangeInclusive being larger than necessary for range purposes
  • Incorrect ExactSizeIterator implementations

Name the new types something besides Range

We could choose to introduce these new types with a name other than Range. Some alternatives that have been proposed:

  • Interval
  • Span
  • Bounds

We believe that it is best to keep the Range naming for several reasons:

  • Existing Range* types that implement Copy and not Iterator that won’t be touched by this change
  • Large amount of legacy educational material and code using the Range naming
  • It’s best to match the name of the syntax (“range expressions”)

Use legacy range types as the iterators for the new range types

We could choose to make new_range.into_iter() resolve to a legacy range type. This would reduce the number of new types we need to add to the standard library.

But the legacy range types have a much larger API surface than other Iterators in the standard library, which typically only implement the various iterator traits and maybe have a remainder method. Specifically, there are no iterator types in the standard library which have public fields. Nor do any implement PartialEq, Eq, Hash, Index, or IndexMut.

RangeInclusive especially must take care with equality, hashing, and indexing because it can be exhausted. By removing those impls from the iterator for it, we can prevent that misuse entirely.

One of the strongest arguments for new types is the incorrect ExactSizeIterator implementations for Range<u32 | i32> and RangeInclusive<u16 | i16>. These can be excluded if new iterator types are introduced.

Finally, the cost of adding these iterator types is extremely low, given we’re already adding a set of new types for the ranges themselves.

Inherent map should map the bounds, not return an iterator

Some argue that inherent map should not return an iterator. Some say that they may expect it to map each bound individually ((1..11).map(|x| x*2) -> 2..22). Others say these methods should return IntoIterator types instead.

However, making them return an iterator has many benefits:

  • Matches existing behavior
  • Reduces code churn
  • Act as an entry point for other iterator methods

Adding these convenience methods is unlikely to cause confusion because of how common this pattern already is (if anything, the opposite is true). Plus, it’s pretty easy to tell based on the function signature what is going on, and it’s simple to document.

Changing the meaning of (1..11).map(...) is a huge hazard. There is a lot of existing code, documentation, etc that uses it in the Iterator sense. It would be incredibly confusing, especially to a newcomer, to have it do something totally different between editions. Especially since in many cases it could silently change meaning:

// Edition 2021
for n in (1..11).map(|n| n*2) {
    // n = 2, 4, 6, ...., 16, 18, 20
// Edition 2024?
for n in (1..11).map(|n| n*2) {
    // n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ...., 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21

If there is demand for a method that maps the bounds, it should be added under a different name, such as map_bounds , perhaps even as a method on RangeBounds.

Implicit conversions (coercions)

This proposal specifically avoids involving any form of implicit conversion. Adding coercions from the new to legacy types would have a few benefits:

  • Avoid explicit conversions when migrating automatically to Edition 2024
  • Few (if any) library changes needed to support the new types

Coercions would effectively eliminate the main drawback of this RFC. However, adding implicit conversions has severe drawbacks of its own:

  • Makes it harder to reason about code
  • Further blurs the line between language and library
  • Affects type inference

In this specific case, the coercion would also need to be considered during trait resolution to be significantly useful, which is not currently done in other cases like deref coercion.

Range literal

We could treat range expressions as a kind of literal, and only “coerce” them into the legacy range types at the point of the range syntax. Similar to integer literals, the concrete type would be chosen based on context, like how 4 can be used anywhere expecting any integer type.

This would have fewer serious downsides than coercions, but both approaches add a large cost for implementation in the compiler.

We don’t consider the downsides of either approach to be justified given the relative rarity of libraries needing changes in the first place, the ease of adding explicit conversions when necessary, and the option for users to continue to use prior editions while waiting for library support.

Prior art

The copy-range crate provides types similar to those proposed here.

Unresolved questions

Ecosystem Disruption

We must take into account the ecosystem impact of this change before stabilization.

  • How do we properly document and execute the ecosystem transition?
  • How much time will it take to propagate this change throughout the ecosystem?
  • What degree of ecosystem saturation would we be satisfied with?
  • How much time do we need with stable library types before making the lang change?
  • What about libraries that wish to maintain a certain MSRV?
  • Taking into account all of the mitigations (diagnostics, migrations, and lints but NOT language-level changes), is the level of ecosystem disruption acceptable?
  • What is expected of new libraries? Should they continue to support both sets of ranges or only the new ones?
  • Will new Rust users need to learn about older editions because of downstream users of their code?


We leave the following items to be decided by the libs-api team after this proposal is accepted and before stabilization:

  • The set of inherent methods copied from Iterator present on the new range types
  • The exact module paths and type names
    • Should the new types live at std::ops::range:: instead?
    • IterRange, IterRangeInclusive or just Iter, IterInclusive? Or RangeIter, RangeInclusiveIter, …?
  • Should other range-related items (like RangeBounds) also be moved under the range module?
  • Should RangeFrom even implement IntoIterator, or should it require an explicit .iter() call? Using it as an iterator can be a footgun, usually people want start..=MAX instead. Also, it is inconsistent with RangeTo, which doesn’t implement IntoIterator either.
  • Should there be a way to get an iterator that modifies the range in place, rather than taking the range by value? That would allow things like range.by_ref().next().
  • Should there be an infallible conversion from legacy to new RangeInclusive?
impl<Idx> From<legacy::RangeInclusive<Idx>> for RangeInclusive<Idx> {
    // How do we handle the `exhausted` case, set `end < start`?

Future possibilities

  • Hide or deprecate range-related items directly under ops (without breaking existing links or triggering deprecation warnings on previous editions).
  • RangeTo(Inclusive)::rev() that returns an iterator?
  • IterRangeInclusive can be optimized to take advantage of the case where the bounds don’t occupy the full domain of the index type:
enum IterRangeInclusiveImpl<Idx> {
    // Used when `end < Idx::MAX`
    // Works like `start..(end + 1)`
    Exclusive { start: Idx, end: Idx },
    // Used when `end == Idx::MAX && start > Idx::MIN`
    // Works like `((start - 1)..end).map(|i| i + 1)`
    ExclusiveOffset { start: Idx, end: Idx },
    // Only used when `start == Idx::MIN` and `end == Idx::MAX`
    // Works like `start..=end` does now
    // No need for `exhausted` flag, uses `start < end` instead
    Inclusive { start: Idx, end: Idx },

pub struct IterRangeInclusive<Idx> {
    inner: IterRangeInclusiveImpl<Idx>,