Rust currently includes feature-gated support for type parameters that specify a default value. This feature is not well-specified. The aim of this RFC is to fully specify the behavior of defaulted type parameters:

  1. Type parameters in any position can specify a default.
  2. Within fn bodies, defaulted type parameters are used to drive inference.
  3. Outside of fn bodies, defaulted type parameters supply fixed defaults.
  4. _ can be used to omit the values of type parameters and apply a suitable default:
    • In a fn body, any type parameter can be omitted in this way, and a suitable type variable will be used.
    • Outside of a fn body, only defaulted type parameters can be omitted, and the specified default is then used.

Points 2 and 4 extend the current behavior of type parameter defaults, aiming to address some shortcomings of the current implementation.

This RFC would remove the feature gate on defaulted type parameters.


Why defaulted type parameters

Defaulted type parameters are very useful in two main scenarios:

  1. Extended a type without breaking existing clients.
  2. Allowing customization in ways that many or most users do not care about.

Often, these two scenarios occur at the same time. A classic historical example is the HashMap type from Rust’s standard library. This type now supports the ability to specify custom hashers. For most clients, this is not particularly important and this initial versions of the HashMap type were not customizable in this regard. But there are some cases where having the ability to use a custom hasher can make a huge difference. Having the ability to specify defaults for type parameters allowed the HashMap type to add a new type parameter H representing the hasher type without breaking any existing clients and also without forcing all clients to specify what hasher to use.

However, customization occurs in places other than types. Consider the function range(). In early versions of Rust, there was a distinct range function for each integral type (e.g. uint::range, int::range, etc). These functions were eventually consolidated into a single range() function that is defined generically over all “enumerable” types:

trait Enumerable : Add<Self,Self> + PartialOrd + Clone + One;
pub fn range<A:Enumerable>(start: A, stop: A) -> Range<A> {
    Range{state: start, stop: stop, one: One::one()}

This version is often more convenient to use, particularly in a generic context.

However, the generic version does have the downside that when the bounds of the range are integral, inference sometimes lacks enough information to select a proper type:

// ERROR -- Type argument unconstrained, what integral type did you want?
for x in range(0, 10) { ... }

Thus users are forced to write:

for x in range(0u, 10u) { ... }

This RFC describes how to integrate default type parameters with inference such that the type parameter on range can specify a default (uint, for example):

pub fn range<A:Enumerable=uint>(start: A, stop: A) -> Range<A> {
    Range{state: start, stop: stop, one: One::one()}

Using this definition, a call like range(0, 10) is perfectly legal. If it turns out that the type argument is not other constraint, uint will be used instead.

Extending types without breaking clients.

Without defaults, once a library is released to “the wild”, it is not possible to add type parameters to a type without breaking all existing clients. However, it frequently happens that one wants to take an existing type and make it more flexible that it used to be. This often entails adding a new type parameter so that some type which was hard-coded before can now be customized. Defaults provide a means to do this while having older clients transparently fallback to the older behavior.

Historical example: Extending HashMap to support various hash algorithms.

Detailed Design

Remove feature gate

This RFC would remove the feature gate on defaulted type parameters.

Type parameters with defaults

Defaults can be placed on any type parameter, whether it is declared on a type definition (struct, enum), type alias (type), trait definition (trait), trait implementation (impl), or a function or method (fn).

Once a given type parameter declares a default value, all subsequent type parameters in the list must declare default values as well:

// OK. All defaulted type parameters come at the end.
fn foo<A,B=uint,C=uint>() { .. }

// ERROR. B has a default, but C does not.
fn foo<A,B=uint,C>() { .. }

The default value of a type parameter X may refer to other type parameters declared on the same item. However, it may only refer to type parameters declared before X in the list of type parameters:

// OK. Default value of `B` refers to `A`, which is not defaulted.
fn foo<A,B=A>() { .. }

// OK. Default value of `C` refers to `B`, which comes before
// `C` in the list of parameters.
fn foo<A,B=uint,C=B>() { .. }

// ERROR. Default value of `B` refers to `C`, which comes AFTER
// `B` in the list of parameters.
fn foo<A,B=C,C=uint>() { .. }

Instantiating defaults

This section specifies how to interpret a reference to a generic type. Rather than writing out a rather tedious (and hard to understand) description of the algorithm, the rules are instead specified by a series of examples. The high-level idea of the rules is as follows:

  • Users must always provide some value for non-defaulted type parameters. Defaulted type parameters may be omitted.
  • The _ notation can always be used to explicitly omit the value of a type parameter:
    • Inside a fn body, any type parameter may be omitted. Inference is used.
    • Outside a fn body, only defaulted type parameters may be omitted. The default value is used.
    • Motivation: This is consistent with Rust tradition, which generally requires explicit types or a mechanical defaulting process outside of fn bodies.

References to generic types

We begin with examples of references to the generic type Foo:

struct Foo<A,B,C=DefaultHasher,D=C> { ... }

Foo defines four type parameters, the final two of which are defaulted. First, let us consider what happens outside of a fn body. It is mandatory to supply explicit values for all non-defaulted type parameters:

// ERROR: 2 parameters required, 0 provided.
fn f(_: &Foo) { ... }

Defaulted type parameters are filled in based on the defaults given:

// Legal: Equivalent to `Foo<int,uint,DefaultHasher,DefaultHasher>`
fn f(_: &Foo<int,uint>) { ... }

Naturally it is legal to specify explicit values for the defaulted type parameters if desired:

// Legal: Equivalent to `Foo<int,uint,uint,char,u8>`
fn f(_: &Foo<int,uint,char,u8>) { ... }

It is also legal to provide just one of the defaulted type parameters and not the other:

// Legal: Equivalent to `Foo<int,uint,char,char>`
fn f(_: &Foo<int,uint,char>) { ... }

If the user wishes to supply the value of the type parameter D explicitly, but not C, then _ can be used to request the default:

// Legal: Equivalent to `Foo<int,uint,DefaultHasher,uint>`
fn f(_: &Foo<int,uint,_,uint>) { ... }

Note that, outside of a fn body, _ can only be used with defaulted type parameters:

// ERROR: outside of a fn body, `_` cannot be
// used for a non-defaulted type parameter
fn f(_: &Foo<int,_>) { ... }

Inside a fn body, the rules are much the same, except that _ is legal everywhere. Every reference to _ creates a fresh type variable $n. If the type parameter whose value is omitted has an associate default, that default is used as the fallback for $n (see the section “Type variables with fallbacks” for more information). Here are some examples:

fn f() {
    // Error: `Foo` requires at least 2 type parameters, 0 supplied.
    let x: Foo = ...;

    // All of these 4 examples are OK and equivalent. Each
    // results in a type `Foo<$0,$1,$2,$3>` and `$0`-`$4` are type
    // variables. `$2` has a fallback of `DefaultHasher` and `$3`
    // has a fallback of `$2`.
    let x: Foo<_,_> = ...;
    let x: Foo<_,_,_> = ...;
    let x: Foo<_,_,_,_> = ...;

    // Results in a type `Foo<int,uint,$0,char>` where `$0`
    // has a fallback of `DefaultHasher`.
    let x: Foo<int,uint,_,char> = ...;

References to generic traits

The rules for traits are the same as the rules for types. Consider a trait Foo:

trait Foo<A,B,C=uint,D=C> { ... }

References to this trait can omit values for C and D in precisely the same way as was shown for types:

// All equivalent to Foo<i8,u8,uint,uint>:
fn foo<T:Foo<i8,u8>>() { ... }
fn foo<T:Foo<i8,u8,_>>() { ... }
fn foo<T:Foo<i8,u8,_,_>>() { ... }

// Equivalent to Foo<i8,u8,char,char>:
fn foo<T:Foo<i8,u8,char,_>>() { ... }

References to generic functions

The rules for referencing generic functions are the same as for types, except that it is legal to omit values for all type parameters if desired. In that case, the behavior is the same as it would be if _ were used as the value for every type parameter. Note that functions can only be referenced from within a fn body.

References to generic impls

Users never explicitly “reference” an impl. Rather, the trait matching system implicitly instantiates impls as part of trait matching. This implies that all type parameters are always instantiated with type variables. These type variables are assigned fallbacks according to the defaults given.

Type variables with fallbacks

We extend the inference system so that when a type variable is created, it can optionally have a fallback value, which is another type.

In the type checker, whenever we create a fresh type variable to represent a type parameter with an associated default, we will use that default as the fallback value for this type variable.


fn foo<A,B=A>(a: A, b: B) { ... }

fn bar() {
    // Here, the values of the type parameters are given explicitly.
    let f: fn(uint, uint) = foo::<uint, uint>;

    // Here the value of the first type parameter is given explicitly,
    // but not the second. Because the second specifies a default, this
    // is permitted. The type checker will create a fresh variable `$0`
    // and attempt to infer the value of this defaulted type parameter.
    let g: fn(uint, $0) = foo::<uint>;

    // Here, the values of the type parameters are not given explicitly,
    // and hence the type checker will create fresh variables
    // `$1` and `$2` for both of them.
    let h: fn($1, $2) = foo;

In this snippet, there are three references to the generic function foo, each of which specifies progressively fewer types. As a result, the type checker winds up creating three type variables, which are referred to in the example as $0, $1, and $2 (not that this $ notation is just for explanatory purposes and is not actual Rust syntax).

The fallback values of $0, $1, and $2 are as follows:

  • $0 was created to represent the type parameter B defined on foo. This means that $0 will have a fallback value of uint, since the type variable A was specified to be uint in the expression that created $0.
  • $1 was created to represent the type parameter A, which has no default. Therefore $1 has no fallback.
  • $2 was created to represent the type parameter B. It will have the fallback value of $1, which was the value of A within the expression where $2 was created.

Trait resolution, fallbacking, and inference

Prior to this RFC, type-checking a function body proceeds roughly as follows:

  1. The function body is analyzed. This results in an accumulated set of type variables, constraints, and trait obligations.
  2. Those trait obligations are then resolved until a fixed point is reached.
  3. If any trait obligations remain unresolved, an error is reported.
  4. If any type variables were never bound to a concrete value, an error is reported.

To accommodate fallback, the new procedure is somewhat different:

  1. The function body is analyzed. This results in an accumulated set of type variables, constraints, and trait obligations.
  2. Execute in a loop:
  3. Run trait resolution until a fixed point is reached.
  4. Create a (initially empty) set UB of unbound type and integral/float variables. This set represents the set of variables for which fallbacks should be applied.
  5. Add all unbound integral and float variables to the set UB
  6. For each type variable X:
    • If X has no fallback defined, skip.
    • If X is not bound, add X to UB
    • If X is bound to an unbound integral variable I, add X to UB and remove I from UB (if present).
    • If X is bound to an unbound float variable F, add X to UB and remove F from UB (if present).
  7. If UB is the empty set, break out of the loop.
  8. For each member of UB:
    • If the member is an integral type variable I, set I to int.
    • If the member is a float variable F, set I to f64.
    • Otherwise, the member must be a variable X with a defined fallback. Set X to its fallback.
      • Note that this “set” operations can fail, which indicates conflicting defaults. A suitable error message should be given.
  9. If any type parameters still have no value assigned to them, report an error.
  10. If any trait obligations could not be resolved, report an error.

There are some subtle points to this algorithm:

When defaults are to be applied, we first gather up the set of variables that have applicable defaults (step 2.2) and then later unconditionally apply those defaults (step 2.4). In particular, we do not loop over each type variable, check whether it is unbound, and apply the default only if it is unbound. The reason for this is that it can happen that there are contradictory defaults and we want to ensure that this results in an error:

fn foo<F:Default=uint>() -> F { }
fn bar<B=int>(b: B) { }
fn baz() {
    // Here, F is instantiated with $0=uint
    let x: $0 = foo();

    // Here, B is instantiated with $1=uint, and constraint $0 <: $1 is added.

In this example, two type variables are created. $0 is the value of F in the call to foo() and $1 is the value of B in the call to bar(). The fact that x, which has type $0, is passed as an argument to bar() will add the constraint that $0 <: $1, but at no point are any concrete types given. Therefore, once type checking is complete, we will apply defaults. Using the algorithm given above, we will determine that both $0 and $1 are unbound and have suitable defaults. We will then unify $0 with uint. This will succeed and, because $0 <: $1, cause $1 to be unified with uint. Next, we will try to unify $1 with its default, int. This will lead to an error. If we combined the checking of whether $1 was unbound with the unification with the default, we would have first unified $0 and then decided that $1 did not require unification.

In the general case, a loop is required to continue resolving traits and applying defaults in sequence. Resolving traits can lead to unifications, so it is clear that we must resolve all traits that we can before we apply any defaults. However, it is also true that adding defaults can create new trait obligations that must be resolved.

Here is an example where processing trait obligations creates defaults, and processing defaults created trait obligations:

trait Foo { }
trait Bar { }

impl<T:Bar=uint> Foo for Vec<T> { } // Impl 1
impl Bar for uint { } // Impl 2

fn takes_foo<F:Foo>(f: F) { }

fn main() {
    let x = Vec::new(); // x: Vec<$0>
    takes_foo(x); // adds oblig Vec<$0> : Foo

When we finish type checking main, we are left with a variable $0 and a trait obligation Vec<$0> : Foo. Processing the trait obligation selects the impl 1 as the way to fulfill this trait obligation. This results in:

  1. a new type variable $1, which represents the parameter T on the impl. $1 has a default, uint.
  2. the constraint that $0=$1.
  3. a new trait obligation $1 : Bar.

We cannot process the new trait obligation yet because the type variable $1 is still unbound. (We know that it is equated with $0, but we do not have any concrete types yet, just variables.) After trait resolution reaches a fixed point, defaults are applied. $1 is equated with uint which in turn propagates to $0. At this point, there is still an outstanding trait obligation uint : Bar. This trait obligation can be resolved to impl 2.

The previous example consisted of “1.5” iterations of the loop. That is, although trait resolution runs twice, defaults are only needed one time:

  1. Trait resolution executed to resolve Vec<$0> : Foo.
  2. Defaults were applied to unify $1 = $0 = uint.
  3. Trait resolution executed to resolve uint : Bar
  4. No more defaults to apply, done.

The next example does 2 full iterations of the loop.

trait Foo { }
trait Bar<U> { }
trait Baz { }

impl<U,T:Bar<U>=Vec<U>> Foo for Vec<T> { } // Impl 1
impl<V=uint> Bar for Vec<V> { } // Impl 2

fn takes_foo<F:Foo>(f: F) { }

fn main() {
    let x = Vec::new(); // x: Vec<$0>
    takes_foo(x); // adds oblig Vec<$0> : Foo

Here the process is as follows:

  1. Trait resolution executed to resolve Vec<$0> : Foo. The result is two fresh variables, $1 (for U) and $2=Vec<$1> (for $T), the constraint that $0=$2, and the obligation $2 : Bar<$1>.
  2. Defaults are applied to unify $2 = $0 = Vec<$1>.
  3. Trait resolution executed to resolve $2 : Bar<$1>. The result is a fresh variable $3=uint (for $V) and the constraint that $1=$3.
  4. Defaults are applied to unify $3 = $1 = uint.

It should be clear that one can create examples in this vein so as to require any number of loops.

Interaction with integer/float literal fallback. This RFC gives defaulted type parameters precedence over integer/float literal fallback. This seems preferable because such types can be more specific. Below are some examples. See also the alternatives section.

// Here the type of the integer literal 22 is inferred
// to `int` using literal fallback.
fn foo<T>(t: T) { ... }
// Here the type of the integer literal 22 is inferred
// to `uint` because the default on `T` overrides the
// standard integer literal fallback.
fn foo<T=uint>(t: T) { ... }
// Here the type of the integer literal 22 is inferred
// to `char`, leading to an error. This can be resolved
// by using an explicit suffix like `22i`.
fn foo<T=char>(t: T) { ... }

Termination. Any time that there is a loop, one must inquire after termination. In principle, the loop above could execute indefinitely. This is because trait resolution is not guaranteed to terminate – basically there might be a cycle between impls such that we continue creating new type variables and new obligations forever. The trait matching system already defends against this with a recursion counter. That same recursion counter is sufficient to guarantee termination even when the default mechanism is added to the mix. This is because the default mechanism can never itself create new trait obligations: it can only cause previous ambiguous trait obligations to now be matchable (because unbound variables become bound). But the actual need to iteration through the loop is still caused by trait matching generating recursive obligations, which have an associated depth limit.

Compatibility analysis

One of the major design goals of defaulted type parameters is to permit new parameters to be added to existing types or methods in a backwards compatible way. This remains possible under the current design.

Note though that adding a default to an existing type parameter can lead to type errors in clients. This can occur if clients were already relying on an inference fallback from some other source and there is now an ambiguity. Naturally clients can always fix this error by specifying the value of the type parameter in question manually.

Downsides and alternatives

Avoid inference

Rather than adding the notion of fallbacks to type variables, defaults could be mechanically added, even within fn bodies, as they are today. But this is disappointing because it means that examples like range(0,10), where defaults could inform inference, still require explicit annotation. Without the notion of fallbacks, it is also difficult to say what defaulted type parameters in methods or impls should mean.

More advanced interaction between integer literal inference

There were some other proposals to have a more advanced interaction between custom fallbacks and literal inference. For example, it is possible to imagine that we allow literal inference to take precedence over type default fallbacks, unless the fallback is itself integral. The problem is that this is both complicated and possibly not forwards compatible if we opt to allow a more general notion of literal inference in the future (in other words, if integer literals may be mapped to more than just the built-in integral types). Furthermore, these rules would create strictly fewer errors, and hence can be added in the future if desired.


Allowing _ notation outside of fn body means that it’s meaning changes somewhat depending on context. However, this is consistent with the meaning of omitted lifetimes, which also change in the same way (mechanical default outside of fn body, inference within).

An alternative design is to use the K=V notation proposed in the associated items RFC for specify the values of default type parameters. However, this is somewhat odd, because default type parameters appear in a positional list, and thus it is surprising that values for the non-defaulted parameters are given positionally, but values for the defaulted type parameters are given with labels.

Another alternative would to simply prohibit users from specifying the value of a defaulted type parameter unless values are given for all previous defaulted typed parameters. But this is clearly annoying in those cases where defaulted type parameters represent distinct axes of customization.

Hat Tip

eddyb introduced defaulted type parameters and also opened the first pull request that used them to inform inference.